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, requires a large and expensive labor force, and is subject to stringent worker safety regulations. Although several herbicides are labeled for use in tree nurseries, residual herbicide options are limited during the critical rootstock emergence and early

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rootstock to reduce the possibilities of DED transmission in the soil by root graft connections ( Green et al., 1985 ). Grafting of scions onto rootstock was performed 2 cm upward from the root-stem junction, and the scions used for both grafting and in

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Abstract

A number of pre-emergence soil residual herbicides were tested at 2 locations on varieties of young peach, plum, cherry, pear and walnut rootstocks. The greatest variation in response resulted from differences in location. Important differences in varietal response were also obtained with the various herbicides in light soils. Simazine appeared sufficiently safe to trees in heavier soil but gave variable weed control. Diuron gave about the same degree of weed control but more safety than simazine on young trees. Of the uracil herbicides tested, DP-733 was the least toxic to the fruit tree species tested, while bromacil and isocil were generally the most toxic, except to peach trees. Of the commercial uracil herbicides, only DP-732 (terbacil) was of sufficient interest for further study.

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important species including fruit and nut trees in the United States, and was recently reported to have infected olive trees in Italy ( European Food Safety Authority, 2013 ; Hopkins and Purcell, 2002 ). In pecan, the disease causes defoliation, yield loss

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fruits are eaten by people directly from scion cultivar and not from the rootstock. The perceived safety problem will be avoided by the combination of transgenic rootstock and nontransgenic scion cultivars. Smolka et al. (2010) investigated the effects

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production. Drought, soil salinity, and cold weather can severely impact the development and production of wine grape ( V. vinifera ), and therefore, a cultivar of rootstocks has been developed in Xinjiang grape to resist such environmental stress. These

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safety. Given that rootstocks are not usually allowed to flower, environmental concerns on transgene flow would also be minimal. For transgrafted food products, if the GE parts produce immobile GE products, no GE components should be present in the

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; Hollings et al., 1975 ). Both of these diseases are economically important in the United States and worldwide. In addition, reports of viral diseases as a result of the use of virus-contaminated rootstocks have been reported in melons ( Choi, 2001

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fertilizers and antistress compounds ( Guo et al. 2022 ; Tonhati et al. 2020 ), shadow net ( Ahmed 2019 ), and different protective cultivation methods, or by grafting onto different rootstocks ( Shehata et al. 2022 ). Grafting is a technical process

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rootstock and scion plants, RKNs can be managed by grafting melon cultivars with desirable horticultural traits onto rootstocks containing RKN resistance. Grafting has been shown to be an effective tool for combating several soilborne diseases in cucurbit

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