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Nathaniel A. Mitkowski and Arielle Chaves

clipping weight and rooting depth of established creeping bentgrass ( Agrostis stolonifera L.) greens. Materials and Methods Tests were conducted on a Bridgehampton silt loam located at the Skogley Memorial Turfgrass Research Facility at the University of

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J. Roger Harris and Susan D. Day

depth affected growth in the nursery of only one of five species tested. In Fare's study, roots had completely filled the container, creating a solid root ball with structural roots buried. The post-transplant consequence of buried structural roots

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Christina Wells, Karen Townsend, Judy Caldwell, Donald Ham, E. Thomas Smiley, and Michael Sherwood

Landscape trees are frequently planted with their root collars below grade, and it has been suggested that such deep planting predisposes trees to transplant failure and girdling root formation. The objective of the present research was to examine the effect of planting depth on the health, survival, and root development of two popular landscape trees, red maple (Acer rubrum) and `Yoshino' cherry (Prunus ×yedoensis). Trees were transplanted with their root flares at grade, 15 cm below grade or 31 cm below grade. Deep planting had a strong negative effect on the short-term survival of `Yoshino' cherries. Two years posttransplant, 50% of the 15-cm- and 31-cm-deep planted cherries had died, whereas all the control cherries had survived (P< 0.001; 2). Short-term survival of maples was not affected by planting depth. Deep-planted trees of both species exhibited little fine root regrowth into the upper soil layers during the first year after transplant. Four years posttransplant, control maples had 14% ± 19% of their trunk circumference encircled by girdling or potentially-girdling roots; this number rose to 48% ± 29% and 71% ± 21% for 15-cm- and 31-cm-deep planted maples, respectively (P< 0.01; ANOVA main effect). There were no treatment-related differences in girdling root development in the cherries.

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Timothy K. Broschat

Mature pygmy date palms (Phoenix roebelenii O'Brien) having a minimum of 90 cm of clear trunk were transplanted into a field nursery at their original depth or with 15, 30, 60, or 90 cm of soil above the original rootball. Palms planted at the original level or with the visible portion of the root initiation zone buried had the largest canopies, highest survival rates, and lowest incidence of Mn deficiency 15 months after transplanting. Palms planted 90 cm deep had only a 40% survival rate, with small, Mn-deficient canopies on surviving palms. Palms whose original rootballs were planted 90 cm deep had very poor or no root growth at any level, but had elevated Fe levels in the foliage. None of the deeply planted palms produced any new adventitious roots higher than 15 cm above the visible portion of the root initiation zone.

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Eric M. Lyons, Robert H. Snyder, and Jonathan P. Lynch

. Plants in both Al-P treatments had the same root mass in the top half of the root zone. The control plants had significantly ( P < 0.05) less root mass below 15 cm of depth (0.15 g) compared with the plants in the Al-P treatments (0.35 g and 0.43 g) in

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Darryl D. Warncke and William B. Evans

Phosphorus applications can increase potato yields in Michigan soils with over 400 kg·ha-1 Bray-Kurtz P1 extractable P. Four potato cultivars (Onaway (On), Kennebec (Ke), Russet Norkotah (RN), and Snowden (Sn)) were planted on 7 May 1993 to study P fertilizer effects on root growth and development. Each plot received adequate N & K, and either 0 or 50 kg·ha-1 P. Two minirhizotrons (5 cm i.d.) were set 1.1 m deep at 45° to the soil surface into each plot. P treatment did not influence tuber yield. At 65 days after planting, root counts for On, RN and Sn averaged 72, 44 and 58%. respectively, of those in Ke plots. The P treatment did not significantly influence total root counts within or across cultivars on any of five sampling dates. More visible roots were produced in the first 0.4 m of soil by plants receiving P than by plants not receiving P. Below the first 0.4 m, plants not fertilized with P produced more visible roots than those receiving P.

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Ty A. McClellan, Roch E. Gaussoin, Robert C. Shearman, Charles S. Wortmann, Martha Mamo, Garald L. Horst, and David B. Marx

green establishment were not retained in the root zone beyond the grow-in year, but in Years 2 and 3 after establishment, nutrient levels in the root zone generally began to increase. Sampling depth effects were not investigated in their study. Mat layer

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William B. Thompson, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Sushila Chaudhari, David W. Monks, Katherine M. Jennings, and Garry L. Grabow

shown that sweetpotato transplants are typically planted at a depth of 7.6–10.2 cm (3–4 inches) and several nodes are placed underground to maximize potential root set ( Boudreaux et al., 2005 ). Fig. 1. Fingers of a commercial transplanter holding a

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Davie M. Kadyampakeni, Kelly T. Morgan, Arnold W. Schumann, and Peter Nkedi-Kizza

by site. At the SS, root density increased with depth in both irrigated and nonirrigated zones across the 2 years. About 50% to 70% of the fibrous roots (<0.5 mm) in the irrigated zone were concentrated in the top 0- to 15-cm soil depth with the

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Shengrui Yao, Ian A. Merwin, and Michael G. Brown

at 5-cm depth in the soil profile. Because the root numbers were often low and varied greatly among replicates in 2002, we tripled the observation sample size in 2003, recording images in three view angles: one vertical (12 o'clock or 0°) in the tube