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Erfan K. Vafaie, H. Brent Pemberton, Mengmeng Gu, David Kerns, Micky D. Eubanks, and Kevin M. Heinz

biological control in poinsettia production requires a better understanding of current accepted whitefly densities at the retailers. In this study, we determine the starting infestation levels of whiteflies on rooted poinsettia cuttings at grower facilities

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Richard C. Beeson Jr

and ET A determined by weighing lysimetry for L. japonicum during a year of production from rooted cuttings to market size plants. In 2005, an algorithm derived from the model was used to control irrigation of L. japonicum from rooted cuttings to

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Christopher J. Currey, Veronica A. Hutchinson, and Roberto G. Lopez

seed, rooted cuttings have increased genetic uniformity, no juvenile stage to pass before flowering, shorter production time, and the potential to be produced from sterile or seedless cultivars ( Erwin, 1994 ). The goals of propagators include producing

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S.C. Myers and A.T. Savelle

`Guardian' peach rootstock has shown improved survivability in areas where root-knot nematode and peach tree short life are a problem. Many peach rootstocks are typically propagated from seed. Availability of seed may vary and the long-term genetic uniformity of rootstock material may be difficult to maintain due to out-crossing during seed production. A reliable, successful vegetative propagation method would potentially increase the rate at which material could be made available and more closely ensure genetic uniformity. Production of liners was compared between rooted cuttings and seed of mature `Guardian', `Lovell', and `Nemaguard' peach trees. Seed were stratified under uniform conditions, planted at initial germination, and seedling emergence recorded 30 days after planting. Terminal softwood and semi-hardwood cutting were treated with KIBA and rooted under intermittent mist in a greenhouse. Rooting percentage was equal to or greater than percent seedling emergence. Optimum results were obtained with semi-hardwood cuttings taken in July and August. Rooted cuttings transplanted to the field produced liners of equal or greater quality than liners produced from seed. Seedlings exhibited variability in growth in the nursery area. Rooted cuttings had fewer lateral branches in the lower 15 cm of rootstock where trees were T-budded with certified, virus-indexed buds of `Cresthaven' peach.

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Mark H. Brand and Richard Kiyomoto

Tissue proliferation (TP) of Rhododendron sp. is characterized by basal tumors that often develop into numerous dwarf shoots. Growers need to know if the TP condition will recur in plants grown from normal-appearing cuttings collected from plants with TP tumors. Stem cuttings of seven cultivars were collected from stock plants with TP [TP(+)] and without TP [TP(–)] and rooted. Plants were grown in containers outdoors for 2 years and were then evaluated for tumor formation and other TP-related morphological symptoms. Shoots of TP(+) plants were either similar in length to shoots of TP(–) plants, or were shorter, as was the case for `Boule de Neige', `Catawbiense Album', and `Montego'. Plants grown from TP(+) cuttings of all cultivars had more leaves per growth flush than did plants grown from TP(–) cuttings. `Holden', `Montego', and `Scintillation' TP(+) leaves were narrower than leaves from TP(–) shoots and had greater length: width ratios. Leaves of TP(+) `Montego' and `Scintillation' plants were shorter and smaller than leaves from their TP(–) counterparts. Tumors were not observed on any propagated plants, regardless of the TP status of cutting stock plants. To further test the influence of age and TP status of source plants used for cutting propagation, `Montego' plants were grown from cuttings collected from the following sources: 1) in vitro shoot cultures; 2) 3-year-old plants with TP; 3) 6-year-old plants with TP; and 4) TP(–) plants. Cuttings from TP(+) micropropagated plants less than 3 years old were more likely to develop tumors than were cuttings from older plants. Eighty-three percent of plants from microcuttings and 74% of plants from cuttings of 3-year-old TP(+) plants formed tumors, whereas no plants grown from 6-year-old TP(+) or TP(–) cuttings did so. Large tumors that surrounded half or more of the stem were more likely to develop on plants grown from microcuttings than on plants grown from the next youngest, 3-year-old TP(+), stock plants. Growers must be aware that cuttings from TP(+) plants may produce plants that exhibit morphological and growth abnormalities, possibly even including tumor redevelopment.

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Sharon Morrison, John M. Smagula, and Walter Litten

For accelerating the filling in of bare areas in native lowbush blueberry fields or converting new areas to production, micropropagated plantlets rooted after three subcultures outperformed seedlings and rooted softwood cuttings. After 2 years of field growth, they averaged 20.3 rhizomes each of average dry weight 3.5 g, as compared with 5.7 rhizomes of average dry weight 1.1 g for rooted softwood cuttings. After 1 year of field growth, seedlings produced on average 3.3 vs. 0.4 rhizomes from micropropagated plants that had not been subcultured and 0.3 rhizomes from stem cuttings. Apparently, subculturing on cytokinin-rich media induces the juvenile branching characteristic that provides micropropagated plants with the desirable morphologies and growth habits of seedlings. These characteristics favor rhizome production while the benefits of asexual reproduction are retained. The advantage in rhizome production of micropropagation over stem cuttings varied among clones.

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Mark P. Kaczperski, Royal D. Heins, and William H. Carlson

Methods of cold storage for rooted cuttings of three cultivars of Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey were examined. Cuttings were stored from 0 to 10°C for 7 to 56 days. Treatments included packing the cuttings in ice, storing them under irradiance levels of 0 or 50 μmol·m–2·s–1, applying fungicides, varying cutting developmental stages, and varying the day temperatures. Cuttings packed in ice showed signs of chilling injury within 7 days and died. Applications of etridiazole and thiophanate-methyl or metalaxyl and thiophanate-methyl drenches or fosetyl-Al spray did not improve storage performance of the cuttings. Roots of cuttings held 7 additional days in the propagation area before storage grew faster after storage than those of cuttings with less time in the propagation area, but flowering time was not affected. Maintaining night temperatures at 5°C while allowing day temperatures to rise to 10°C delayed flowering by 6 days compared to maintaining a constant 5°C. Rooted cuttings held at 5°C under 50 μmol·m–2·s–1 irradiance for 9 hours each day could be stored up to 56 days with only a 2-day delay in flowering compared to unstored cuttings. Chemicals used were 5-ethoxy-3-trichloromethyl-1,2,4-thiadiazole (etridiazole); thiophanate-methyl (dimethyl[1,2-phenylene)bis(iminocarbonothioyl)]bis[carbamate]) (thiophanate-methyl); N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-methoxyacetyl) alanine methyl ester (metalaxyl); aluminum tris (O-ethyl phosphonate) (fosetyl-Al).

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A. Talaie and M. Zarrabi

To study the reasons for the losses of rooted semihardwood cuttings of olive propagated under the mist method, a 2-year experiment was carried out at the Horticulture Dept. of Faculty of Agriculture of the Tehran Univ. In this experiment, semihardwood cuttings of olive (Zard cultivar) in four different media—heavy-(Al), semi-heavy(A2), medium (A3), and light (A4), all disinfected with two different concentrations of Captan—were used. Root growth stages with low, medium, and light densities in spring and fall were evaluated. The results indicate that there are the least losses in semi-heavy (A2) and medium (A3) media. This could be the result of a better ventilation conditions in these media, which activates N and Ca and finally accelerates the better growth conditions in all young rooted cuttings. On the other hand, it was clear that inadequate disinfection will result in losses of rooted cuttings, and using Captan at 2 ppm gives the best result. This research indicate that, with the higher growth rate, the first medium will have the fewer losses. The reason is the higher density and more durability and strength of the root, which control the disease-causing factors; so far that these factors do not influence the young roots. Finally, strong and dense roots show less losses. This experiment was designed in a factorial with randomized complete block and the averages were compared in a Duncan test and the results of abnormally distributed characteristics were shown by using logarithmic and sinus method.

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Nihal C. Rajapakse, William B. Miller, and John W. Kelly

Low-temperature storage potential of rooted cuttings of garden chrysanthemum [Dendranthema ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura] cultivars and its relationship with carbohydrate reserves were evaluated. Storage of chrysanthemum cuttings at -1 and -3 °C resulted in freezing damage. Visual quality of rooted cuttings stored at 0 or 3 °C varied among cultivars. Quality of `Emily' and `Naomi' cuttings was reduced within a week by dark storage at 0 or 3 °C due to leaf necrosis, while `Anna' and `Debonair' cuttings could be held for 4 to 6 weeks without significant quality loss. In `Anna' and `Debonair', low-temperature storage reduced the number of days from planting to anthesis regardless of storage duration. However, flowers of plants grown from stored cuttings were smaller than those of nonstored cuttings. At the beginning of storage, `Emily' and `Naomi' had lower sucrose, glucose, and fructose (soluble sugars) content compared to `Anna' and `Debonair'. Regardless of temperature, leaf soluble sugar was significantly reduced by dark storage for 4 weeks. In stems, sucrose and glucose were reduced while fructose generally increased during low-temperature storage probably due to the breakdown of fructans. Depletion of soluble sugars and a fructan-containing substance during low-temperature dark storage was greater in `Emily' and `Naomi' than in `Anna' and `Debonair'. Low irradiance [about 10 μmol·m-2·s-1 photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) from cool-white fluorescent lamps] in storage greatly improved overall quality and delayed the development of leaf necrosis in `Naomi'. Cuttings stored under light were darker green and had a higher chlorophyll content. Leaf and stem dry weights increased in plants stored under medium and high (25 to 35 μmol·m-2·s-1 PAR) irradiance while no change in dry weight was observed under dark or low light. Results suggest that the low-temperature storage potential of chrysanthemum cultivars varies considerably, and provision of light is beneficial in delaying the development of leaf necrosis and maintaining quality of cultivars with short storage life at low temperatures.

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Martin P.N. Gent

Efficacy of paclobutrazol was determined when applied to rooted cuttings before transplant. Cuttings of large-leaf Rhododendron catawbiense Michx. were treated with paclobutrazol applied as a 40-mL drench. In 1998, concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 10, or 20 mg·L-1 were applied to liners before root development was complete in February, or after cuttings were root-bound in May. The same volume of solution was applied to other plants at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, or 20 mg·L-1 in July 1998, after transplant to 1-gal pots. In 1999, a 40-mL drench of paclobutrazol at 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, or 20 mg·L-1 was only applied to liners in April. All cuttings were transplanted to 1-gal pots and set in the field. The elongation of stems was measured after each of three flushes of growth. Plants were far more responsive to paclobutrazol when it was applied before, rather than after transplant. There was a saturating response to paclobutrazol concentration and the half-maximal response occurred at 2 to 4 mg·L-1 (0.08 to 0.16 mg/plant). At low rates, later flushes of growth were affected less than earlier flushes. However if paclobutrazol was applied at 10 or 20 mg·L-1, later flushes of growth were inhibited more completely than early flushes. Flowering was enhanced by paclobutrazol. Paclobutrazol at 2 mg·L-1 applied to rooted cuttings before transplant was sufficient to inhibit growth of rhododendron, but not to the point where later flushes of growth were excessively short. Chemical name used: 2RS,3RS-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-l-yl)-pentan-3-ol (paclobutrazol).