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Mohamed S. Elmongy, Xiuyun Wang, Hong Zhou, and Yiping Xia

ROS in the growth areas during root elongation and differentiation. Furthermore, HA was able to regulate ROS homeostasis in rice roots during root development ( Olaetxea et al., 2016 ). Phenolic compounds are considered secondary metabolites ( Kefeli

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Margaret T. Mmbaga, Lucas M. Mackasmiel, and Frank A. Mrema

induction of resistance by a root-endophytic fungus ( Waller et al., 2005 ). In addition, Hardoim et al. (2008) reported that some endophytic bacteria promoted host plant growth by producing plant growth-promoting substances and fixing nitrogen (N) from

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How-Chiun Wu and Chun-Chih Lin

blue LEDs produced larger bulblets and a higher number of roots ( Lian et al., 2002 ). Phenolic compounds are known to play a role as endogenous promoters and inhibitors of adventitious root formation ( Wu et al., 2007b ). In difficult-to-root species

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Mason T. MacDonald, Rajasekaran R. Lada, Jeff Hoyle, and A. Robin Robinson

encourage primary root development ( Phillips et al., 1997 ), although ABA has roles in promoting stability of the photosynthetic apparatus ( Gong et al., 1998 ) and gene expression ( Chandler and Robertson, 1994 ). When applied as a foliar spray, ABA

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Isaac T. Mertz, Nick E. Christians, and Adam W. Thoms

secondary compounds necessary for life ( Taiz and Zeiger, 2006 ). They contain an amino group (NH 2 ) that makes them a possible N source for plants. When foliarly applied, some AAs can enter the plant through leaf tissue, resulting in N uptake ( Joy and

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Young-Ki Park, Byung-Hoon Min, Heawon P. Choi, and Jung-Myung Lee

A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of chlorocholine and similar compounds such as choline, chlorocholine chloride (CCC or chlormequat) and other compounds on the rooting and seedling quality for transplanting. The growth of shoot and root and the ratio of shoot/root were influenced and consequently the seedling quality was improved by chlorocholine treatment. Mungbean bioassays for plant hormone revealed that rooting was promoted and shoot growth or stem elongation was inhibited by the treatment. Addition of other PGRs such as atonik, vitamins and surfactants to chlorocholine solution significantly promoted the rooting of mungbean cuttings as well as the rooting of cutting of sweet potato, cucumber, and watermelon.

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Kim E. Hummer

. The phenolics are the biochemical motif most active in Rubus plants for ethnomedicinal applications. Rubus phenolics include the flavonoids, potent in vitro antioxidants, including compounds such as flavones, isoflavones, flavonones, catechins, and

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Ran Chen, Weitao Jiang, Haiyan Wang, Fengbing Pan, Hai Fan, Xuesen Chen, Xiang Shen, Chengmiao Yin, and Zhiquan Mao

, and weeds ( Qiao et al., 2010 ). Qiao et al. (2012) found that tomato root-knot nematode disease was reduced significantly, and the growth of tomatoes was promoted, after fumigating soil with 1,3-dichloropropene. Calcium cyanamide is an alkaline

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Rowan Briscoe, Rajasekaran Lada, Claude Caldwell, Kevin Sibley, Christine Pettipas, and Azure Stiles

Producing carrots with optimal root grades is the most critical aspect of carrot production for maximizing profits. Desired root grades can be optimized by maintaining optimal plant population. While precision seeding helps to seed required seeding rate, obtaining optimum seed germination and uniform emergence, especially in mineral soils and under cold and dry climates, have been great challenges to carrot producers around the world. Therefore, stand establishment is critical for optimizing yield and quality in carrots. Experiments were conducted to identify suitable germination and emergence promoters (GEPs) that will promote early and uniform emergence under temperatures of 5 °C and 20 °C and under 20% FC and 40% FC combinations. GEPs, belonging to both natural and synthetic antistress, antioxidant groups of compounds, and mineral salts were used. Carrot seeds of cv. Oranza were used in this study. Seeds were preconditioned with various GEPs, then submerged into laponite RD gel that was used as a potential “artificial exosperm” for carrot seeds. Data on emergence was collected and emergence and vigor value was calculated. Under ideal conditions, that is, at the 20 °C and 40% FC combination, there was no significant difference between treated seeds and untreated control. Germination was delayed at the 5 °C and 20% FC combination. However, seeds preconditioned with GEP-PN1.5%, GEP-LU at 1 mg·L-1, GEP-CA at 10 mg·L-1, GEP-AA at 100 mg·L-1 and GEP-SD at 10 mg·L-1 all promoted emergence resulting in the highest number of seedlings emerged at 5 °C and at 20% FC. Enhanced emergence under low temperature and low moisture may perhaps be due to synthesis of specific proteins.

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Benjamin Wherley and Thomas R. Sinclair

), increased tillering ( Beasely et al., 2005 ; Ervin and Koski, 1998 ; Fagerness and Yelverton, 2000 ; Goss et al., 2002 ), and changes in total root length and surface area ( Beasely et al., 2005 ). By decreasing canopy height through suppression of