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In July 1999, adult stages of root weevils were established in 1-gal containers planted with Rhododendron `PJM.' Each pot was inoculated with one black vine weevil, three rough strawberry root weevils, and four strawberry root weevils. On 12 July, insecticide spray treatments were applied. Treatments were evaluated for percent adult mortality at 7 and 14 days after treatment (DAT). Black vine weevils were more sensitive to the insecticides studied than either strawberry root weevil or rough strawberry root weevil. There was considerable mortality of the black vine weevils and rough strawberry root weevils in the untreated plots by 14 DAT. Talstar Flowable (bifenthrin), Alta (deltamethrin), Topside (lamda cyhalothrin), and CGA 293 343 (thiamethoxam) all gave 100% control 7 DAT. Additionally, Closure (bendiocarb) and acephate gave 75% or better control at 7 DAT. Rough strawberry root weevil had 100% mortality in only the Alta-treated plots at 7 DAT, followed by 93% and 80% mortality in Topside and acephate-treated plots, respectively. Mortality of the strawberry root weevils in the untreated plots by 14 DAT remained relatively low. Strawberry root weevils were more resistant to the applied insecticide treatments. Only Topside-treated plots had 90% or greater mortality at 7 DAT, followed by Talstar (60%), Alta (58%), and acephate (54%). Topside-treated plots had 90% or greater mortality at 14 DAT followed by Talstar (76%), Alta (68%), and Closure (60%). Combined root weevil species mortality showed highest mortality at 7 DAT in Topside-treated plots (87% or greater), followed by Alta (74% or greater), and acephate (73%).

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The efficacy of new formulations and application techniques were compared to existing standard pesticides for adult root weevil control. A known number of adult black vine weevils (Otiorhynchis sulcatus) were added to Rhododendron `Cunningham's Blush' growing in 1-gal containers. Spray or hand-applied treatments were assigned to three plants each within the six blocks of a randomized complete-block design. Treatments were evaluated for percentage adult mortality at 7 and 14 days after treatment (DAT). Orthene (16 oz/100 gal), Pinpoint (2.0 g and 3.0 g prod/pot), Talstar (20 oz/A; both day- and night-applied), and CGA 293 343 (8.5 oz thiamethoxam/100 gal) provided greater than 90% control of root weevil adults 2 weeks after treatment. Although providing less than 50% control at 7 DAT, the low rate of Pinpoint (0.5 g prod/pot), Cryolite bait (30 lb/A), and Kryocide (50 lb/A) treated blocks showed greater than 60% mortality by 2 weeks after treatment. Bifenthrin-treated weed barriers (1.5% ai) placed on the surface of the growing medium provided more than 50% control 14 days after treatment. Differences in speed of control may reflect differing modes of action or application methods. One possible benefit in use of the slower-acting stomach poisons and systemic insecticides is reduced risk to nontarget organisms such as predator mites.

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The sweetpotato weevil is the most-destructive worldwide pest of sweetpotato and only low to moderate levels of resistance to the insect are available in acceptable cultivars. No sources of high resistance levels have been identified; consequently, there is a need to identify additional sources of resistance genes to develop high resistance levels. To begin a search for sources of resistance, plant introductions were evaluated for injury levels. In 1993, 100 plant introductions were evaluated for sweetpotato weevil injury and 62 of the least injured were tested again in 1994. In 1995, 36 of the least injured in 1993 and 1994, plus 24 additional PIs were evaluated. Control cultivars included `Regal', moderately resistant; `Jewel', intermediate; and `Beauregard' and `Centennial', susceptible. Measurements of injury were percentage of roots injured, and, stem and root injury scores based on a 0–5 scale, with 0 being no injury. First year results indicated that a low level of resistance to stem injury is available in the PIs tested. Stem injury was more severe in the following year and no differences were found. Lower weevil populations will be required to screen for low levels of stem injury resistance. Percentage injured roots and root injury scores were lower over the 3 years for five PIs than for `Regal'.

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Methanol extracts of external (outer 3 mm) and interior root tissue of four sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivars (`Centennial', `Jewel', `Regal', and `Resisto') having different levels of susceptibility to the sweetpotato weevil [Cylas formicarius elegantulus Summer] were analyzed for simple carbohydrates (fructose, glucose, sucrose, inositol) and organic acids (malic, citric, quinic) by gas chromatography and for phenolics (caffeic acid, caffeoylquinic acids, rutin) by high-performance liquid chromatography. There were significant differences among cultivars in the concentrations of total sugars and phenolics in the external tissue (P < 0.05). In addition, the distribution of carbohydrates, organic acids, and chlorogenic acid [3-O-caffeoylquinic acid] differed between external and interior tissues. Sucrose was the major water-soluble carbohydrate in all cultivars. With the exception of malic acid, the concentration of carbohydrates, organic acids, and phenolics did not correlate with cultivar susceptibility to the sweetpotato weevil.

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The sweetpotato weevil is the single most critical insect pest of the sweetpotato worldwide. While male weevils can be lured to traps using a synthetic female pheromone, crop losses are not adequately reduced since damage is caused by the larvae arrising from eggs laid by female weevils in the storage roots. Identification of a female attractant could greatly enhance the control of the insect. The leaves and storage roots are known to emit volatiles that attract the female and in the following tests, we demonstrate that feeding by female weevils stimulates the synthesis of a volatile attractant which attracts additional females to the root. Undamaged, artificially damaged, and female weevil feeding damaged periderm were tested in dual-choice and no-choice olfactometers. Volatiles from feeding damaged roots were significantly more attractive than undamaged and artificially damaged roots. To test whether the volatile attractant was of weevil or root origin, volatiles were collected in MeCl2 after removal of the weevils and fractionated on a megabore DB-1 capillary column using a GC fitted with a TC detector. Fractions were collected from the exit port and their activity index (AI) determined using dual choice and no choice olfactometry. The active fraction was ascertained and active components identified via GC-MS.

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become attractive to the weevil at approximately the four-true-leaf stage. The female lay eggs in slits on the petioles of the leaves. Newly hatched larvae fall to the ground and begin feeding externally on the root. Damage is usually limited to the crown

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with weevil damage were counted and recorded; all marketable carrots were weighed. The percentage of damaged carrots was analyzed using the square root transformation, and all data were subjected to a two-way analyses of variance using SAS (version 6

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Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) ( Patten and Daniels, 2010 ). This prolific species is part of a complex of polyphagous root weevils that attack crops worldwide; cranberry is one of more than 80 plant species that serve as host

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( Cuthbert and Davis, 1971 ) by averaging the rating given to each root (1 = 1–5 holes or scars; 2 = 6–10 holes or scars; 4 = more than 10 holes or scars). Injury by white grubs (primarily P. aliena ), sweetpotato flea beetles, and sweetpotato weevils was

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Twenty-four half-sib sweetpotato families were field tested for freedom from injury by sweetpotato weevil and other soil inhabiting, injurious insects (WDS). Three pairs of adult male and female weevils were applied to the crown of each plant at the beginning of storage root enlargement. Naturally occurring numbers of WDS were high enough for considerable injury from those insects. WDS injury free roots ranged from 19% in Centennial, the suceptible control, to 57% in Regal, the resistant control. The highest family mean for percent non-injured by WDS was 55%. Weevil injury free roots ranged from 67% in Centennial to 90% in Regal with 3 families producing mean weevil non-injured roots of 89%. The genetic correlation between weevil injury free and WDS injury free roots was 0.69 ± 0.28. That estimate is preliminary and based on data from one environment. Evaluations will be repeated in 1994 for estimates of GXE to derive genetic correlation estimates with less environmental interactions.

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