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Arthur Villordon, Don LaBonte, Julio Solis, and Nurit Firon

component analysis of lateral root attributes of ‘Beauregard’ adventitious roots. LR = lateral root; MR = main root; MR/LR area = MR/LR surface area ratio; MR/LR length = MR/LR length ratio; LR density = LR number/main root length. PC = principal component

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Shixin Deng, Qun Yin, Shanshan Zhang, Kankan Shi, Zhongkui Jia, and Luyi Ma

, the RLD values were 0.353, 0.390, and 0.280 cm·cm −3 , respectively, which were 3.1, 3.4, and 2.5 times greater than that in T1, respectively. Fig. 3. The effect of root length density, root surface area, root volume, and root mean diameter under

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Ved Parkash, Sukhbir Singh, Manpreet Singh, Sanjit K. Deb, Glen L. Ritchie, and Russell W. Wallace

years. Table 2. Effect of deficit irrigation levels and cultivars on root length density (RLD), root surface area density (RSAD), and root classification (percent of total root length per diameter class) of cucumber in 60-cm deep soil profile in

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Ved Parkash and Sukhbir Singh

)], root surface area density (RSAD) [root surface area per unit volume of soil (cm 2 ·cm −3 )], and root fineness classification (percentage of total root length in a given diameter class) using WinRHIZO Pro version 2016a software (Regent Instruments Inc

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Julie M. Tarara, Bernardo Chaves, and Bernadine C. Strik

respond to surface and near-surface temperatures. Black weed mat, which with its low albedo can induce very high surface and near-surface temperatures, was associated with less root and crown growth but more top growth of blueberry during establishment. In

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S.M. Eichorst, R.B. Rogers, and M.A.L. Smith

Use of a liquid media during micropropagation has promoted improved proliferation and rooting response in several species. In this experiment, a double phase system (a combination of liquid and agar solidified medium) was applied to three cultivars of miniature roses (Rosa chinensis var. minima) to determine the effects on shoot quality and subsequent ex-vitro rooting. Applications of liquid media to the surface of agar solidified media were made at 0, 2, and 4 weeks. Evaluation via computerized image analysis after eight weeks of proliferation revealed equal or greater values for shoot length, area and weighted density (equivalent to fresh weight) for cultures receiving overlay, regardless of timing, compared to the solid media control. Additionally, application of a liquid overlay improved rooting response by up to 20% over the control and resulted in a tendency for a greater number of roots of greater length and area than the treatment without liquid media overlay.

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Eric B. Bish, Daniel J. Cantliffe, and Craig K. Chandler

Bare-root strawberry transplants have been conventionally used for establishment of strawberry fruiting fields. These bare-root transplants have variability in vegetative vigor that results in irregular flowering patterns. We have been experimenting with a containerized transplant system to produce uniform transplants. Increasing transplant container volume by increasing perimeter, rather than depth, has resulted in increased plant size, but also increases transplant production costs. This study evaluated three container perimeters (17, 25, 32 cm) and three container shapes (circular, elliptical, and biconvex) such that different cell perimeters had the same greatest diameter. All containers had a depth of 3.5 cm. Root imaging analysis (MacRHIZOTM) was used to measure root growth in the container as well as root growth 3 and 6 weeks after transplanting. Increasing container perimeter led to increased plant growth before and after transplanting, but did not affect fruit production. Transplant container shape did not significantly alter plant growth or fruit production. Biconvex and elliptical containers required 25% and 15% less surface area, respectively. Therefore, a biconvex shaped container can be used to increase plant density during transplant propagation, decreasing surface area needed and reducing production costs.

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Hassan Salehi and Morteza Khosh-Khui

Turfgrass seeds can be sown individually, in mixes, or overseeded to provide green color and uniform surfaces in all the seasons. This investigation was conducted to compare different turfgrass species and their seed mixtures. In this research, the turfgrasses—perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. `Barball'), kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L. `Merion'), common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.), and strong creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra L. var. rubra `Shadow')—in monoculture or in mixtures of 1:1 (by weight) and a 1:1:1:1 (by weight) and two sport turfgrasses—BAR 11 (Barenbrug Co.) and MM (Mommersteeg Co.)—were used. The seeds were sown in March and October (spring and fall sowing) in 1998 and 1999. The experiments were conducted in a split-split block design with year as main plot, sowing season as subplot, and turfgrass types as subsubplot. The turfgrasses were compared by measuring visual quality, chlorophyll index after winter and summer, rooting depth, verdure and/or root fresh and dry weight, tiller density, and clippings fresh and dry weight. Fall sowing was superior to spring sowing and resulted in greater root growth, clipping yield, and chlorophyll content. Poa+Cynodon seed mixture was the best treatment and had high tiller density, root growth, and chlorophyll content. Lolium and Festuca monocultures, and Poa+Festuca and Cynodon+Festuca seed mixtures were not suitable with regard to low tiller density, sensitivity to high temperatures, low root growth, and low tiller density, respectively. The cool-warm-season seed mixture (Poa+Cynodon) can be used alternatively in overseeding programs in the areas with soil and environmental conditions similar to this research site.

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Thomas E. Marler and Cecil Stushnoff

The influence of plant size on recovery following defoliation of `Tainung 1' papaya was used to study the role of respiratory sink size relative to photosynthetic surface area and the carbohydrate pool size available for remobilization. Defoliated (D) plants at three different ages: oldest, 24 weeks posttransplant (PT), supporting ≈8 weeks of fruit set; intermediate, 10 weeks PT, ≈2 weeks from initial flowering; and youngest, 4 weeks PT, were compared to an equal number of control plants. The oldest plants abscised all fruit <5.5 cm in diameter as a result of defoliation. Increase in stem height and basal circumference ceased on all plants and increase in fruit circumference ceased on the oldest plants following defoliation. Increase in stem height of D plants began again 3 weeks postdefoliation (PD) and returned to that of control plants by 6 weeks PD. Increase in basal circumference of D plants began again 6 weeks PD. Root density was observed on observation windows, and fine roots completely disappeared within 1 week PD. Root density returned to that of control plants by 6 weeks for the youngest and intermediate plants and by 8 weeks for the oldest plants. Increase in fruit circumference of pre-existing fruit for the oldest D plants never returned to that for control plants. These plants began setting fruit again ≈8 weeks PD. Defoliation delayed initial flowering of the intermediate plants 6.5 weeks and of the youngest plants ≈2 weeks. Thus, the greatest impact of defoliation on reproductive growth occurred with the two oldest age groups.

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Brian J. Tucker, Lambert B. McCarty, Haibo Liu, Christina E. Wells, and James R. Rieck

As golfers demand higher quality golf green putting surfaces, researchers continue to seek improved turfgrass cultivars. One such improved cultivar is `TifEagle' bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy], which is an improvement over traditional bermudagrass cultivars such as `Tifgreen' and `Tifdwarf' due to its ability to tolerate mowing heights of ≤3.2 mm for extended periods. One observed disadvantage of `TifEagle' is its lack of a deep, dense root system compared to previous bermudagrass cultivars. This field study measured mowing height, N rate, and biostimulant product effects on `TifEagle' rooting. Three mowing heights (3.2, 4.0, and 4.8 mm), three N rates (12, 24, and 48 kg N/ha/week), and two cytokinin-containing commercial biostimulant products (BIO1 and BIO2) were examined. Plant responses measured were root length density (RLD), root surface area (RSA), thatch layer depth (TLD), and turf quality (TQ). Increasing mowing height from 3.2 to 4.0 mm increased RLD by >11%, RSA by >11%, and TQ by >17%. Increasing N rates from 12 to 24 kg N ha-1 week-1 increased RLD by >17%, RSA by >26% and TQ by >16%. No effect on RLD was observed after the first year of biostimulant use, however, after the second year, BIO1 increased RLD by >11% when applied with the lowest rate of N (12 kg N/ha/week). Higher mowing heights (4.8 and 4.0 mm) increased TLD >6% compared to the lowest mowing height (3.2 mm), and higher N rates (48 and 24 kg N/ha/week) increased TLD >3% compared to the lowest N rate (12 kg N/ha/week). Overall, a mowing heights ≥4.0 mm, N rates ≥24 kg N/ha/week, and long-term use of a cytokinins-containing biostimulant had a positive effect on `TifEagle' rooting.