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Abstract

Lodging may be defined as “the state of permanent displacement of stems from their upright position” (31). Diverse factors are known to bring about lodging. Plants may be inherently weak and susceptible to lodging due to such traits as a low stem lignin content (4, 49) or a small root system (31, 40, 45). Plants may be weakened due to damage by insects or pathogens (24, 31). Cultural practices can increase lodging through increased plant populations (13, 31, 54), high fertilization rates (31, 54), irrigation (31, 54), or damage from cultivation (18). Both stem lodging and root lodging may occur. In stem lodging, the plant bends over or breaks at any point along its stem. In root lodging, straight and intact stems lean over from the ground level due to a disturbed or an inherently weak root system (31).

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ear length and diameter. Many entries at the Arlington, WI 2010 environment suffered severe root lodging, and ears were harvested only from plants judged to be harvestable by mechanical picker (having an angle of 30° or greater between the soil surface

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Root or stalk lodging can be a serious problem in sweet corn (Zea mays L.) production. Four dent corn inbreds, crossed to five sweet corn inbreds in a design II mating system, and a half diallel with five sweet corn inbreds were used to 1) determine the effect and potential contribution of dent corn germplasm on stalk and root quality traits in sweet corn, 2) examine the variation for stalk and root quality traits in some sweet corn germplasm, and 3) evaluate the utility of traits used in improving dent corn root and stalk quality in sweet corn improvement. The dent corn germplasm used in this study had a favorable affect on stalk and root quality in the dent × sweet hybrids. Compared to the sweet × sweet hybrids, the dent × sweet hybrids had significantly higher stalk crushing strength and stalk soluble carbohydrates, while having significantly less stalk lodging. The mean stalk lodging for the dent × sweet hybrids was 4.4%, while the sweet × sweet hybrids averaged 18.7%. Within the diallel, effects due to hybrids were highly significant for stalk section weight, rind thickness, and stalk diameter. Percent stalk lodging was negatively correlated with stalk section weight [r = (-0.63), P ≤ 0.05] and crushing strength [r = (-0.64), P ≤ 0.05]. No traits were significantly correlated with root lodging within the sweet corn crosses. Dent corn has potential as a source of improved stalk and root quality in sweet corn.

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Abstract

Three lodging-resistant (LR) and 3 lodging-susceptible (LS) paprika pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) lines were grown from transplants at Bixby, Okla., in 1983. Stem diameter at ground level and number of lodged plants were determined monthly from July through November. Stem diameter increased gradually through 14 Oct. and then leveled off. Number of lodged plants increased sharply between 14 July and 15 Aug., and increased slowly thereafter. On all but the 1st date (14 July), stem diameter was negatively correlated with number of lodged plants. On each date, LR lines averaged larger in stem diameter and lower in number of lodged plants than LS lines. Sample plants were harvested on 28 Oct. On the average, LR plants had larger stem diameters at soil level, greater root weights, and lower shoot:root ratios than LS plants but did not differ from LS plants in shoot weight, number of marketable red pods, and cellulose and lignin content in the lowermost 8 cm of central axis stem tissue. Results should aid in breeding for lodging resistance in paprika pepper.

Open Access

). Inflorescences of G. candicans can grow up to 1.2 m, which can result in lodging due to the length of the peduncle and lack of sufficient support (personal observation). Cape hyacinth has been shown to be hardy for gardens of North America ( Armitage, 2008

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/SH.40 in 2010 ( Fig. 3 ) mainly occurred at –20 cm. The SH.40 grafted combinations had strong basipetal ability in root development that may contribute to the strong drought tolerance and lodging resistance. The SH series rootstock was developed at the

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Landi, P. Sanguineti, M.C. Liu, C. Li, Y. Wang, T.Y. Giuliani, S. Bellotti, M. Salvi, S. Tuberosa, R. 2007 Root-ABA1 QTL affects root lodging, grain yield, and other agronomic

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these registered herbicides are dinitroaniline (DNA) herbicides or contain DNA herbicides. Root inhibition and lodging frequently occur with DNA herbicides ( Ashton and Crafts 1981 ; Hayes et al., 1999 ). Derr and Salihu (1996) found that a single

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soils on the central growing regions of Florida. Hence, root architecture and anchorage in the upper zone of the soil will be the most critical factor in the susceptibility of citrus trees to lodging or other types of wind-induced damage. According to a

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build the required stems and leaves. Being taller also has costs such as vulnerability to water stress or lodging. Allocating energy and adjusting phenotype toward one function has costs that can make a plant less able to deal with other ecological

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