Muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) vineyards can be difficult to establish due to poor vine growth or survival during the first year after planting. Effects of the planting hole (five types), root manipulation (three levels), and peat amendment (0% and 50%) on first-year growth were studied at two sites with different soil types: a sandy loam (well-drained) and a silty loam (moderately well-drained). The planting hole had the major effect at both sites; large holes (25 liters) shoveled with straight or angled sides resulted in more shoot and root dry weight and greater total root length than auger holes (21 liters) or small shovel holes (10 liters). Vine response to planting in a subsoil slot 0.5 m deep × 6 m long was similar to that in large holes in sandy soil and small holes in heavier soil. Root manipulation treatments had little effect on vine establishment. Root pruning at planting, with or without root separation, did not increase vine dry weight relative to an undisturbed root ball in either soil type, but total root length was increased by root pruning in the heavier silty loam soil. Peat amendment increased total root length in the sandy soil but not in the silty loam soil.
William C. Olien, C.P. Hegwood Jr and James M. Spiers
M.S. Flanagan, R.E. Schmidt and R.B. Reneau Jr.
The “heavy fraction” portion of a municipal solid waste separation process was evaluated in field experiments as a soil amendment for producing turfgrass sod. Soil organic matter and concentrations of extractable NO3-N, P, K, Ca, and Zn in the soil increased with addition of heavy fraction. Soil incorporation of heavy fraction resulted in greater air, water, and total porosity and lower bulk density of a loamy sandy soil. .Sod strength measurements taken 8.5 and 9.5 months after seeding were higher for Kentucky bluegrass (Poaprutensis L.) grown in heavy-fraction-amended topsoil than for turf grown in topsoil only. The use of this by-product may reduce the time required to produce a marketable sod. Soil incorporation of heavy fraction did not influence post-transplant rooting of Kentucky bluegrass sod but enhanced rooting of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] sod at the highest rate evaluated. Results of these studies suggest that the use of heavy fraction for sod production may provide cultural benefits in addition to reducing the volume of solid waste deposited in landfills.
Sandra R. Menasha* and Milton E. Tignor
Sweet corn (Zea mays L.) is difficult to transplant due to poor root regeneration. Despite reduced yields, growers are transplanting sweet corn to hasten maturity time to target profitable early markets in the Northeast. Researchers have ascribed the negative impacts on yield to restricted rooting volume. Therefore, the impacts plug cell volume had on sweet corn transplant root architecture and biomass accumulation were investigated. `Temptation' sweet corn was sown in volumes of 15, 19, 14, and 29 mL correlating to transplant plug trays with plug counts of 200, 162, 128, and 72 plugs per tray. Plug cells were exposed to three substrate environments; a dairy manure based organic compost media, a commercial soil-less germination mix, and the soil-less media supplemented 2X with 200 ppm soluble 3-3-3 organic fertilizer. A 4 × 3 factorial randomized complete-block experimental design with two blocks and five replicates per treatment was repeated twice in the greenhouse. For each experiment a total of three center cells were harvested from each replicate for analysis using the WinRhizo Pro root scanning system (Regent Instruments Inc., Montreal). Three cells per treatment were also transplanted into 8-inch pots to stimulate field transplanting. Based on mean separation tests (n = 30), increased cell volume before transplanting significantly increased root surface area, average diameter, and root volume after transplanting (n = 18). Mean root surface area for a 29-mL cell was 30% greater than a 15-mL cell before transplanting and 22% greater after transplanting. Plug cell volume also significantly impacted shoot and root biomass (P <0.0001). A 14-mL increase in cell volume resulted in a root and shoot dry weight increase of about 15%.
Dilma Silva, Donald Cox and Richard C. Beeson Jr
. 35 1708 1713 Böhm, W. Maduakor, H. Taylor, H.M. 1977 Comparison of five methods for characterizing soybean rooting density and development Agron. J. 69 415 419 Brown, G.R. Thilenius, J.F. 1976 A low cost machine for separation of roots from soil
Kevin R. Kosola, Beth Ann A. Workmaster, James S. Busse and Jeffrey H. Gilman
al., 1997 ) or monitoring root health (e.g., Rizzo et al., 1998 ) is time-consuming. The most commonly characterized methods for collecting fine roots from the field involve taking soil cores or monoliths and subsequently washing the soil away from
Matthew B. Bertucci, David H. Suchoff, Katherine M. Jennings, David W. Monks, Christopher C. Gunter, Jonathan R. Schultheis and Frank J. Louws
). Research has focused on cucurbit rootstock root system physiology to help explain this improved tolerance; however, research has only been conducted with figleaf gourd ( Cucurbita ficifolia ) and is limited to suboptimal soil temperatures ( Lee et al., 2005
Shengrui Yao, Ian A. Merwin and Michael G. Brown
, replant disease severity, and soil microbial community observations from this study have been reported elsewhere ( Oliveira and Merwin, 2001 ; Yao et al., 2005 ). Root systems obviously play an important role in tree growth and development, but little is
Ty A. McClellan, Roch E. Gaussoin, Robert C. Shearman, Charles S. Wortmann, Martha Mamo, Garald L. Horst and David B. Marx
soil fertility recommendations and other management practices for improved putting surfaces. This study was initiated to characterize nutrient and chemical properties of putting greens as impacted by 1) root zone mixture and establishment treatments; 2
Gregory T. Browne
and root rot. For crown rot assessment, the root crown was considered to be the central root system axis and lower stem, starting from the point of main root convergence and extending to 3 cm above the soil surface. On each diseased root crown, a knife
Abby B. Griffin, Amy N. Wright, Kenneth M. Tilt and D. Joseph Eakes
( Costello and Paul, 1975 ; Nelms and Spomer, 1983 ). This could be attributed to water loss from the original root ball as a result of absorption by roots, evaporation from the soil surface, and movement of water from the root ball into the backfilled soil