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Kais S. Ebrahem, Daryl G. Richardson, and Richard M. Tetley

Kernels in the shell were compared to bare kernels with pellicles, half nuts, blanched nuts, finely chopped nuts, and roasted nuts. Whole nuts and whole kernels were stable for up to two years of storage provided they had not been exposed to high temperatures. Nuts stored at low temperatures (0 and 5°C) did not lose significant amounts of vitamin E. Increasing surface area by dividing nuts or finely chopping them, increased the loss of vitamin E. Samples that had lower surface areas did not lose much vitamin E and peroxide value was low. Higher roasting temperatures caused losses in vitamin E and increased peroxide values at the beginning and during storage, even when stored at 0°C. Intact nuts and low storage temperatures did not show changes in fatty acid composition. High temperature treatments changed fatty acid composition, mainly decreasing linoleic initially and finally oleic acids.

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Cancan Zhu, Liu Liu, Min Wang, Yuqiang Zhao, Yu Chen, Xiaomei Lu, and Guomin Geng

suitable for roasting and stir-frying. Table 5. Nut traits of ‘Jianding Youli’ and ‘Jiujiazhong’. The cultivar Jianding Youli did not show obvious symptoms of weevil and Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenée infestation. In 2016, the observation results showed

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Thomas Gradziel, Bruce Lampinen, Franz Niederholzer, and Mario Viveros

premium roasting quality Spanish cultivar Marcona but with a much higher kernel-to-nut ratio. ‘Sweetheart’ shows good overlap with the economically important early bloom of ‘Nonpareil’ and possessing a cross-incompatibility controlling S-genotype of S 1 S

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Mercè Rovira, Juan Francisco Hermoso, and Agustí J. Romero

roasting, of 11 hazelnut cultivars planted in 2001, at 6 × 3.5-m (19.7 × 11.48 ft) tree spacing, at the Institute of Agriculture and Food Research and Technology (IRTA)-Mas de Bover Station (Constantí, Spain). Mean values from 2005 to 2012. Three cultivars

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Chung Soo Chung, Marvin K. Harris, and J. Benton Storey

Annual variation in fruiting by pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] obtained from anecdotal records and state, district, county, and orchard data from Texas indicate exceptionally high synchronous fluctuations typically occurred every 34 years with a range of 2-7 years over the 66-year data base examined. Synchrony in fruit production was inversely related to the spatial distribution of pecans reflected in coefficients of variation ranging from about 60 at the state level to about 120 for two 10-ha orchards. These characteristics show that pecan exhibits roasting and that the species warrants further examination vis a vis interactions with nut feeders.

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J.I. Maté, M.E. Saltveit, and J.M. Krochta

Rancidity is a major problem during the storage of shelled peanuts and walnuts. Blanched peanuts, blanched dry roasted peanuts, blanched oil roasted peanuts (all of them extra large Virginia variety) and shelled Persian walnut (Chandler variety) were maintained in closed jars at 37 C. Relative humidity was controlled by saturated salt solutions at 20% and 55%. Oxygen concentration was 21% or reduced to 0.1% by flushing with nitrogen.

Samples were taken every 2 weeks for 10 weeks. Peroxide values were measured and volatiles were analyzed to determine the rancidity of the samples. Oxygen concentrations in the jars and nut moisture were also measured.

Dry roasted peanuts were the most susceptible to rancidity. Blanched peanuts, without any roasting process, were the most stable. The results quantified the importance of oxygen as a major factor in rancidity at the relative humidities studied. It was concluded that it is possible to quantitatively control the rancidity process by decreasing the oxygen concentration surrounding the nuts.

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Michele R. Warmund

Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) is an exotic species that has potential as a niche crop. As a nut crop, it is relatively precocious in its bearing habit and has resistance to chestnut blight, tolerance to low winter temperatures, and relatively few pests. Current prices for fresh chestnuts are as much as $14/kg. Most U.S. chestnut growers (64%) have small orchards (less than 4 ha) and have been producing this crop for less than 10 years. Commercial chestnut production is low (≈680,000 kg) in the United States, but it is a relatively new industry in the central region. Limitations to growing this crop include a shortage of grafted trees, high tree costs, low yield efficiency, and high labor costs resulting from limited large-scale harvest equipment in the United States. However, results of ongoing research using cultivars on dwarfing rootstocks, thinning of secondary (2°) flowers, and improved tree nutrition will likely enhance profitability of production. In a 2003 Missouri survey, 67% of those interviewed had never consumed Chinese chestnuts but associated chestnut roasting with holidays. Chinese chestnuts provide health benefits. including a source of dietary fiber, a significant amount of vitamin C, no cholesterol, and are gluten-free.

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Norio Takada, Sogo Nishio, Masahiko Yamada, Yutaka Sawamura, Akihiko Sato, Toshio Hirabayashi, and Toshihiro Saito

‘Porotan’ is a Japanese chestnut cultivar (Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc.) that was selected from offspring of the cross 550-40 × ‘Tanzawa’ and released in 2006. Its nut is distinguished by a pellicle that is easy to peel after roasting; previously, all Japanese chestnut cultivars were thought to have a pellicle that was difficult to peel. Both 550-40 and ‘Tanzawa’ are Japanese chestnuts, and 550-40 is a selection descended from ‘Tanzawa’. Both 550-40 and ‘Tanzawa’ have a pellicle that is difficult to peel. Among 59 offspring of a cross of 550-40 × ‘Tanzawa’, 12 had an easy-peeling pellicle and 47 had a difficult-peeling pellicle; this ratio is not significantly different from the 1:3 expected ratio for monogenic inheritance based on a chi-square test at P = 0.05. A half-diallel cross without selfings was made among ‘Porotan’, ‘Tanzawa’, and ‘Tsukuba’. All the offspring from ‘Tanzawa’ × ‘Tsukuba’ and from ‘Tsukuba’ × ‘Porotan’ had a difficult-peeling pellicle; in contrast, 39 offspring from ‘Tanzawa’ × ‘Porotan’ segregated in a ratio of 19 difficult-peeling pellicle to 20 easy-peeling pellicle, which is not significantly different from the expected 1:1 ratio for monogenic segregation based on a chi-square test at P = 0.05. These results suggest that the easy-peeling pellicle trait of ‘Porotan’ is controlled by a major recessive gene at a single locus. We designated the pellicle peelability locus as P/p. According to this model, the ‘Tsukuba’ genotype is homozygous-dominant (PP), the ‘Tanzawa’ genotype is heterozygous (Pp), and the ‘Porotan’ genotype is homozygous-recessive (pp).

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Rafael Socias i Company and A.J. Felipe

is their use for roasting, because the seedcoat is easily removed after roasting. The industry “Almendras Castillo de Loarre” proceeded to a similar operation for the two new cultivars and ‘Desmayo Largueta’, obtaining very good results for ‘Soleta

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Craig M. Hardner, Marisa Wall, and Alyssa Cho

reported by others and may be a consequence of the method used. Assessment of color of kernels from five wild M. tetraphylla genotypes and three commercial cultivars (HAES 246, HAES 344, HAES 849) before and following six roasting treatments indicated