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Steven C. Blank and Raymond Venner

This study develops a method of estimating wind machine effectiveness. The method captures the important variables affecting cost-effectiveness and can be applied at little cost. The present-value method outlined may be applied when evaluating frost protection for other crops and other risk-reducing inputs, such as irrigation equipment. Oranges in California are presented as a case study. The empirical results presented indicate that wind machines are generally not cost-effective for California orange producers. However, when the nonfinancial benefits of yield risk reduction are included, it is possible that wind machines are cost-effective for some growers.

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Winand K. Hock

One of the major misconceptions in contemporary society is the widespread belief that our food supply is unsafe. The public's perception of risk is quite different than scientific assessment of risk. While scientists see microbial contamination as the key issue (100 to 10,000X greater risk than from exposure to pesticide residues), consumers appear to be most concerned about the effects of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers in the food they buy. Consumers equate “synthetic” with harmful or bad and “natural” with safe or good, yet they ignore the fact that 99.9% of all pesticides humans are exposed to are naturally occurring. Americans eat approximately 1.5 g. of natural pesticides per person per day, or about 10,000 times more than synthetic pesticide residues. Although few plant toxins have been tested for carcinogenicity so far, of those tested about half are rodent carcinogens. Contrary to public perception, environmental pollution accounts for only 2% of all cancers. By contrast, smoking, diet and other personal lifestyle choices account for more than 75%.

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Tanya J. Hall, Roberto G. Lopez, Maria I. Marshall, and Jennifer H. Dennis

these barriers could include cost of technology, lack of incentive, lack of knowledge, age, level of education, and risk perceptions ( Banerjee et al., 2008 ; Barreiro-Hurle et al., 2008 ; D'Souza et al., 1993 ; Gillespie et al., 2004 ; Hattam, 2006

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Arthur T. DeGaetano

., 2005 ) and native species ( Schwartz et al., 2006 ). This has raised concerns that warming winter temperatures may paradoxically increase the risk of spring freeze injury as accelerated development may not outpace the decline in the probability of

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P. Geoffrey Allen

Applied Risk Management in Agriculture . Dana L. Hoag, editor. 2010. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL. 403 pages. $79.95, Hardcover. ISBN 978-1-4398-0973-0. While this book can be used as a stand-alone guide to practical risk

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Xuan Wei, Hayk Khachatryan, and Alicia Rihn

only because of its importance to the ornamental horticulture industry by providing out-of-season plant products but also because of the high level of risks (e.g., large investment, yield, and demand uncertainty) involved in greenhouse production

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Steve M. Spangler, Dennis D. Calvin, Joe Russo, and Jay Schlegel

to evaluate the risk of crop infestation ( Dively, 1996 ; Flood et al., 1995 ). Egg mass scouting can be made more efficient with the use of larval stage-structure models, which optimize the timing of in-field egg scouting programs ( Calvin et al

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Robert C. Ebel, Monte Nesbitt, William A. Dozier Jr., and Fenny Dane

freeze injury. Furthermore, more cold-hardy cultivars ( Zhang et al., 2002 ) and the potential of genetic modification to enhance cold tolerance ( Iba, 2002 ; Nolte et al., 1997 ) may reduce the risk of freeze injury. Satsuma mandarins represent a

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Esendugue Greg Fonsah, Gerard Krewer, Kerry Harrison, and Danny Stanaland

objective of this research was to calculate economic returns using risk-rated budget analysis. Expected returns were computed using a risk-rated method. The risk-rated method assigns five categories of yield and price per pound of rabbiteye blueberry, thus

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Hector German Rodriguez, Jennie Popp, Curt Rom, Heather Friedrich, and Jason McAfee

changed to better reflect a producer’s operation. 5) Economic output—This screen presents a graphical representation of the total costs (i.e., variable and fixed costs), gross revenues, and net returns ( Fig. 5 ). Breakeven, sensitivity, and risk analyses