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Mark Gaskell and Tim Hartz

-grown ornamentals Hort. Rev. 38 253 297 Mikkelsen, R. Schwab, G. Randall, G. 2009 The four fertilizer rights: Selecting the right source Crops Soils 42 3 28 31 Mitchell, J. Gaskell, M. Smith, R. Fouche, C. Koike, S. 2000 Soil management and soil quality for organic

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Bielinski M. Santos

management for crops, which are defined as the “4R” nutrient management concept: “right” rate, source, placement, and timing ( Bruulsema et al., 2009 ; Roberts, 2007 ). Therefore, the objective of this paper was to provide general principles for selecting

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Robert L. Mikkelsen

illustration of the 4R framework for fertilizer best management practices. Selecting the right nutrient source, applied at the right rate, right time, and right place, helps to achieve crop management objectives of productivity, profitability, sustainability

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David R. Bryla

The 4R nutrient stewardship concept was introduced by Bruulsema et al. (2009) to define the right source, rate, time, and place to apply fertilizers to produce not only the most economical outcome in any given crop but also to provide desirable

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Neil S. Mattson and Marc W. van Iersel

Gaskell, M. Hartz, T. 2011 Application of the “4R” nutrient stewardship concept to horticultural crops: Selecting the “right” nutrient source HortTechnology 21 663 666 Havlin, J.L. Beaton, J.D. Tisdale, S.L. Nelson, W.L. 2005 Soil fertility and fertilizers

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Kun Li, Qi-Chang Yang, Yu-Xin Tong, and Ruifeng Cheng

attractive alternative to traditional light sources, LEDs have been widely used in potential energy saving applications such as rooms ( Ryckaert et al., 2012 ), supermarkets ( Elsevier Science, 2006 ), tunnels ( Zeng et al., 2011 ), and even in coastal

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Eva C. Worden

Community supported agriculture (CSA) is an alternative model of farming in which consumers become “members” of a farm, by contract, to receive a share of the harvest. Case study interviews were used to ascertain CSA grower perspectives, as indicated by sources of information and motivations. Like most organic growers, but unlike most conventional growers, few CSA growers have family background in agriculture. Common sources of information and strong informal communication were observed among CSA growers. Primary information sources include other growers, printed material, and conferences. Conventional sources of information used in agriculture, i.e., the cooperative extension system and formal agricultural education, appear to be underutilized and are ranked lowest in importance by CSA growers. CSA growers are motivated in their agricultural endeavors by multiple goals: marketing, education, community, and environment. Marketing was the most frequently cited primary goal, followed by education of consumers. For many CSA growers, the marketing motive is not solely monetary, but also philosophical, as a vehicle for achieving right livelihood and building an associative economy that redefines society's relationships to food and land.

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Thomas E. Ferrari

Almond flowers are self-incompatible and require cross-pollination for nut set. Commercial production requires pollinizers be planted within an orchard and the presence of honeybee colonies during bloom. External pollen sources are also available when “nearby” orchards produce flowers simultaneously, and when growers apply “extra” precollected pollen to foragers. The latter cultural practice is performed to improve cross-pollination under adverse bloom conditions. Paternity tests on nuts detected these two sources of supplemental pollen and measured what percent (%) each contributed to fertilization and crop production. Polymorphic enzymes were analyzed following electrophoresis of extracts from 42,000 embryos sampled over an 8-year period from orchards throughout California. A J-shaped frequency histogram was produced by “nearby” pollen sources (n = 30), with 0% to 0.2% being the most common class. The histogram from “extra” pollen (n = 70) was strongly right-skewed and bimodal (m1= 2.0% to 2.5%, m2=15.0% to 17.5%). Both sample populations possessed significantly different (P < 0.001) means, medians, and variances. Nut production by pollen from nearby orchards ranged from 0% to 5% (mean 0.97%, median, 0.45%, SD = 1.455); and production by extra pollen applied to honey bees ranged from 0% to 55% (mean 12.51%, median 7.9%, SD = 12.09). Evidence suggests pollen applied to honeybees contributed from 13- to 18-times more to yield than pollen transferred, naturally, from orchard to orchard.

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Tina P. Thomas, Madhurababu Kunta, John V. da Graça, Mamadou Sétamou, Mani Skaria, and Apurba Bhattacharya

inoculation of viroids. In this study, we used viroid source plants that were previously confirmed with the presence of the citrus viroids ( Kunta et al., 2007b ), including CEVd E9, an isolate that induces severe epinasty in Etrog citron ( C. medica L

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Jules Janick

portrait of Rudolf II as Vertumnus by Giuseppe Arcimboldo, 1590; note also maize as “ears.” Fig. 6. Chayote ( lower right ) redrawn from Selden Codex, 1556. Source: courtesy of Fernando Moreira. Solanaceous fruit crops Capsicum peppers and pepino, important