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Bielinski M. Santos

Nutrient rates: What is “right”? Minimizing nutrient losses and increasing crop utilization is a desirable goal for the fertilizer industry, grower associations, and environmental groups throughout the world. One tool to achieve that goal is the use

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Robert L. Mikkelsen

illustration of the 4R framework for fertilizer best management practices. Selecting the right nutrient source, applied at the right rate, right time, and right place, helps to achieve crop management objectives of productivity, profitability, sustainability

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Neil S. Mattson and Marc W. van Iersel

.S. 2010 Isotopically-labelled nitrogen uptake and portioning in sweet cherry as influenced by timing of fertilizer application Sci. Hort. 126 42 49 Santos, B.M. 2011 Selecting the right nutrient rate: Basis for managing fertilization programs

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David R. Bryla

The 4R nutrient stewardship concept was introduced by Bruulsema et al. (2009) to define the right source, rate, time, and place to apply fertilizers to produce not only the most economical outcome in any given crop but also to provide desirable

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Mark Gaskell and Tim Hartz

100 and 200 lb/acre N. Soil conditions, cover crop carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio and degree of lignification at the time of soil incorporation govern the N mineralization rate of the residue. Residues with C:N ratios >20 provide little N availability

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Tyler Simons, Hanne Sivertsen, and Jean-Xavier Guinard

included single and multiple response types surveying the consumers’ marital status, ethnicity, children, income, citrus consumption and knowledge, and food neophobia questions, among others. Ballots. Adult consumers rated their degree of liking on the 9

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Renee T. Threlfall, John R. Clark, Aubrey N. Dunteman, and Margaret L. Worthington

firmness) on the 9-point verbal hedonic scale (1 = dislike extremely; 9 = like extremely), and five attributes (size, blackberry flavor, sweetness, sourness, and firmness) on a 5-point JAR scale (1 = not nearly enough; 3 = just about right; 5 = much too

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Alberto Sánchez-Estrada and Julián Cuevas

on CP from pollinizers in nontraditional countries such as Mexico. If ‘Manzanillo’ behaves as a fully self-incompatible variety, a pollination design including a suitable pollinizer in the right number and place becomes critical. The success of a

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Hae-Jeen Bang, Soo-Jung Hwang, Hyun-Sook Ham, and Jung-Myung Lee

Grafting is common in all cucurbits in Asia, and gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) is the most popular rootstock for watermelons. Since the grafting is practiced at very early stage (right after the cotyledon expansion), uniform germination of rootstocks as well as the scions is crucial for grafting efficiency. Seeds were divided into three groups; intact, dry-heat treated (75 °C for 72 h), and brushed (575 rpm for 5 min). In each group, various solid matrix priming (SMP) treatments were imposed. Microcel E was used for SMP treatment with water or chemical solutions (10 seed: 1 Microcel E: 3 water, by weight). SMP treatment promoted earlier seed germination in all tested cultivars, thus resulting in higher rate of graftable seedlings. Brushing before SMP further enhanced earlier and uniform seed germination. Dry heat treatment, which can eliminated the seed-borne Fusarium spp. and virus, significantly delayed the early germination although the final germination percentage was not influenced. The characteristics of seedlings will also be presented.

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Jorge Siller-Cepeda, Manuel Báez, Alfonso Stichez, Alfonso A. Gardea, and Guadalupe Osorio

Crop uniformity is critical in early season table grapes, because it diminishes labor and improves chances to attain high prices. Single cyanamide applications are regularly used; however, harvest still requires several pickings. On 6 Dec. hydrogen cyanamide was applied to 4 year-old `Perlette' vines right after pruning or at different timings to advance and uniform harvest. Three rates (4, 6, and 8% Dormex) were applied as single or splitted applications. The later were made after 6, 12, 18, 24, and 48 hrs following the initial spray. The respective half rates were used in splitted applications. Our results showed that budbreak response to a single dose was 39, 71 and 93% for increasing dosages, nonetheless, buds broke unevenly. Divided rates improved both total budbreak and uniform development. However, timing between sprays also influenced the above characteristics. The best timing between applications was 6 hrs improving budbreak to 70, 75, and 100% for increasing concentrations. Since mostly primary buds broke, this also resulted in increased clusters per vine. Budbreak rates were significantly reduced when the second application was delayed by 48 hrs (30, 33, and 63% in the same order).