The 4R nutrient stewardship concept was introduced by Bruulsema et al. (2009) to define the right source, rate, time, and place to apply fertilizers to produce not only the most economical outcome in any given crop but also to provide desirable
Robert L. Mikkelsen
illustration of the 4R framework for fertilizer best management practices. Selecting the right nutrient source, applied at the right rate, right time, and right place, helps to achieve crop management objectives of productivity, profitability, sustainability
Neil S. Mattson and Marc W. van Iersel
plants Plant Soil 193 85 101 Bryla, D.R. 2011 Application of the “4R” nutrient stewardship concept to horticultural crops: Getting nutrients in the “right” place HortTechnology 21 674 682 Bugbee, B. 1995 Nutrient management in recirculating hydroponic
Pierre C. Robert
A better awareness of soil and crop condition variability within fields brought the notion, in the early 1980s that variable management within fields by zones rather than whole fields would increase profitability by doing the right thing at the right place in the right way. At the same time, the microcomputer became available and made possible the acquisition, processing, and use of spatial field data as well as the development of a new kind of farm machinery with computerized controllers and sensors. Precision agriculture (PA) has been considered for most common cropping systems and some specialty crops, worldwide. It is particularly well adapted to high value crops such as many horticultural crops. PA is still in infancy and its adoption varies greatly but precision agriculture is the agricultural system of the future. It offers a variety of potential benefits in profitability, productivity, sustainability, crop quality, food safety, environmental protection, on-farm quality of life, and rural economic development.
Donald H. Steinegger
The Festival of Color is the annual plant and landscape open house sponsored by the Univ. of Nebraska's Horticulture Dept. The festival is the culmination of many water-centered activities that have preceded the festival throughout the year. Last year's September event drew over 10,000 people to the UNL Agricultural Research and Development Center near Mead, Neb. The festival was created to increase the urban public's awareness and motivation regarding the best landscape management practices for developing environmentally compatible landscapes and reducing urban runoff of water and pesticides. The Festival of Color is an event for all ages. By including the activities for the entire family, the festival draws a large spectrum of the urban population. The festival has grown steadily from 850 visitors in 1993 to 10,000 in 1998. The festival will continue to include demonstrations and talks on selection, installation, and management of turf; irrigation equipment and management methods; pesticide selection and pest management alternatives; fertility management alternatives; low input landscaping with native and adapted species; composting; and more. At the Sixth Annual Festival of Color: 1) 42% of new attendees learned how to implement water conserving landscape techniques (66% of the previous attendees implemented water conserving landscape practices), 2) 30% of new attendees learned how to irrigate more efficiently (63% of previous attendees used water more efficiently), and 3) 29% of new attendees learned how to fertilize more efficiently (actual positive behavior change was higher than the proposed change reported by first time attendees), 4) 98% of new attendees learned how to choose plants based on site/location “Right Plant, Right Place” (86% of previous attendees have improved their plant selection skills by putting the right plant in the right place).
Roy Collins III
This paper explores fundamental doctrines of law which increasingly constitute the rules of commerce in deploying the National Information Infrastructure (NII). Particular attention is given to efforts made within the U.S. government to ensure that an appropriate regime of intellectual property law is in place in promoting U.S. leadership in the information-based marketplace. The direct relationship between U.S. copyright law and the networked dissemination of software, audio, graphical and textual works is consequently explored. Also described is the effect of developments in information technology upon the frequently opposing interests of freedom of speech, right to privacy, and governmental regulation.
Edward F. Gilman
This computer program, delivered-on a CD-ROM disc, develops a list of tree species and cultivars suited for a specific planting site. It requires little previous computer experience or tree knowledge to operate. Using multiple choice questions, the program automatically brings the user through above ground and below ground site analysis. This includes all the considerations known to influence proper species section for a planting site. Using C++ programming and the NASA-developed expert system shell called CUPS, a list of facts is generated as the user answers the questions. At the press of a button, the program finds trees that match the attributes the expert system placed on the facts list. The list can be further modified by choosing among ornamental and other tree attributes that might be of interest to the user. The tree list can be printed in several seconds. A typical run through the expert system takes 2 to 4 minutes to answer about 20 to 25 questions. The program contains data on 681 trees, more than 1,800 color photographs, and a 4-page fact sheet including 3 line drawings for each tree totaling more than 2,000 pages. The program can also be used as a reference by paging through the tree records to find information about specific trees. Each tree record lists on the computer monitor a large variety of data for the tree, allows you to view text about the tree, displays a line drawing of the entire tree, and displays up to seven photographs of each tree. The program will be distributed nationwide as a tool to help landscape architects, horticulturists and others select the right tree for the right place.
Guochen Yang, Marihelen Kamp-Glass, and Paul E. Read
American chestnut (Castanea dentata) is one of the United States' most valuable resources for its nuts and timber. Many scientists are exploring genetic transformation techniques to improve chestnut blight resistance in addition to conventional breeding. In vitro shoot production must be first obtained and optimized in order to establish an efficient transformation system. Although shoot proliferation has been achieved, chestnut is still considered difficult for tissue culture with poor rooting. Therefore, this research has focused on improving rooting ability of micropropagated chestnut shoots. In vitro shoot production was established and maintained in WPM supplemented with 0.1 mg/l BA, 3% sucrose, and 0.7% agar with the pH adjusted to 5.8. The shoots were then transferred to rooting medium containing the same components as for shoot proliferation plus an auxin at various concentrations. Right after placing shoots onto rooting medium, a very thin layer (5 ml) of the same auxin (diluted) was added to provide a quick stimulation of rooting. Detailed discussion will be presented.
Mary Lamberts and O. Norman Nesheim
Ten percent (10%) of all restricted use pesticide (RUP) applicators certified by the Fla. Dept. of Agric. & Consumer Serv. (FDACS) reside in Dade County, Florida. Through a joint agreement, the Fla. Cooperative Extension Service (FCES) provides training and testing and FDACS issues private, public and commercial RUP licenses. In 1991, the Dade County Pesticide Trainer analyzed licensing patterns for Dade County's 1454 applicators to determine training needs. She developed a Pesticide Advisory Committee which prioritized 3 of the 14 categories of licenses--Aquatics (weed control), Ornamental & Turf (O&T), and Right-of-Way--for initial certification and recertification classes. It also coordinates programs to reduce duplicated efforts. During 1991, training for initial certification was offered once for Aquatics and twice for O&T. Classes for 1992 have been expanded, placing emphasis on recertification as well. Programs for recertification credits are an ideal way for the extension service to promote sound horticultural management practices which may be new to many commercial and public applicators since they are not part of traditional extension clientele groups.
Bielinski M. Santos
.R. Khaleel, R. Overcash, M.R. Westerman, P.W. 1979 A nonpoint source model for land areas receiving animal wastes: II. Ammonia volatilization Trans. Amer. Soc. Agr. Eng. 22 1398 1405 Roberts, T.L. 2007 Right product, right rate, right time and right place