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Michael W. Smith and Becky S. Cheary

positive results. Pistillate flower induction and eventual differentiation appears to be influenced both locally (shoot or branch) and at the whole tree level. For instance, fruit removal on an individual shoot positively impacts return bloom of the same

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Steven McArtney, Dick Unrath, J.D. Obermiller, and Ann Green

return bloom and consistent cropping. Williams (1979) attributed the increased consistency of U.S. apple production after 1949 to the widespread commercial adoption of chemical thinning technology from that year. However, cultivars that exhibit a strong

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Willem J. Steyn, Samuel F. Ungerer, and Karen I. Theron

GA 3 in Israel ( Blumenfeld, 1981 ). In addition, there is concern that GA 3 application may reduce return bloom. A decrease in flower initiation in response to GAs has been reported for various fruit species ( Bangerth, 2006 ; Goldschmidt et al

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Johannes S. Verreynne and Carol J. Lovatt

tree during floral induction ( Plummer et al., 1989 ) and sometimes during anthesis and initial fruit set ( Monselise and Goldschmidt, 1982 ). Delaying harvest in an on-crop year is known to further reduce return bloom ( El-Otmani et al., 2004a

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Lisa Wasko DeVetter, Rebecca Harbut, and Jed Colquhoun

Eaton, 1986 ; Strik et al., 1991 ). However, recently released cultivars are reputed to exhibit extensive return bloom ( Roper, 2006 ). Return bloom occurs when a fruiting upright develops a mixed bud, thereby circumventing biennial bearing. Much of the

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Irfan Ali Sabir, Xunju Liu, Songtao Jiu, Matthew Whiting, and Caixi Zhang

of juice was used for the measurement. Return bloom To investigate the effects of the PGRs on return bloom or the on- and off-year fruiting, the flower bud formation and flower development were investigated after PGRs application in sweet

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Sara Serra, Rachel Leisso, Luca Giordani, Lee Kalcsits, and Stefano Musacchi

load can reduce size, color appearance, lower flesh firmness, lower sugars, and acidity of fruits ( Embree et al., 2007 ; Hampson and Kemp, 2003 ) in addition to return bloom the following year. Crop load can also affect the photosynthesis in apple

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Todd C. Einhorn, Mateus S. Pasa, and Janet Turner

-Ca results from one cultivar to another. In the United States, P-Ca (trade-name Apogee ® ; BASF Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC) was initially labeled for use with pear, but substantial reductions in return bloom of ‘Bosc’ ( Sugar et al., 2004 ) and reduced

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Charles T. Rohla, Michael W. Smith, Niels O. Maness, and William Reid

, 1938 ; Wood, 1989 , 1991 ; Worley, 1979a , 1979b ). Other work suggested that the inhibition of return bloom by developing fruit was incited by phytohormones or other growth regulators ( Amling and Amling, 1983 ; Smith et al., 1986 ; Wood, 2003

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Duane W. Greene

). There have been many reports on the effectiveness, timing, and rate of ProCa on growth control, fruit set, and return bloom ( Byers and Yoder, 1999 ; Costa et al., 2000 ; Medjdoub et al., 2005 ; Miller, 2002 ). However, these reports are based