Containerized plants of Heliconia psittacorum L.f. × H. spathocircinata Aristeguieta `Golden Torch' were grown in a greenhouse for 8 months from early summer to winter under selected combinations of N, P, and K. Fertilizer rates ranged from zero to rates that exceeded those reported in the literature by 50% to 100%. Biomass variables (vegetative and inflorescence dry weight, and leaf area) were predicted to be maximized at high N and high N to P, and N to K ratios corresponding to N-P-K application rates of 1.2, 0.5, and 0.6 kg·m-3, respectively (≈2:1:1). However, the number of shoots and flowers produced per rhizome were maximal at lower N to K ratios (1:1). Flower yield could therefore be optimized with appropriate fertilization, provided attention was paid to the N to K ratio so that the size of plants and their flowers was not compromised by efforts to increase shoot and flower number. The heavier the rhizome planted, the shorter the time for shoot emergence and flowering to occur, and the greater the number of flowers harvested. However, rhizome weight had no effect on number of shoots to emerge. The probability of shoots flowering declined markedly with order of shoot emergence, although this could be increased with appropriate mineral nutrition. The maximum number of leaves subtending the inflorescence (seven) was obtained at high N and P rates. Flower production was probably limited by declining solar radiation in autumn, and by within-plant competition for rooting space.
John Clemens and R. Hugh Morton
Le Luo, Yichi Zhang, Yingnan Wang, Tangren Cheng, Huitang Pan, Jia Wang, and Qixiang Zhang
potassium on the growth and development of Dahlia pinnata . Thesis, Shandong Agr. Univ., Taian, China Divecha, J. Tarapara, B. 2017 Small, balanced, efficient, optimal, and near rotatable response surface designs for factorial experiments asymmetrical in
Jacob George, Harsh Pal Bais, G.A. Ravishankar, and P. Manilal
Response surface methodology was utilized in statistical optimization of three quality factors (the number of multiple shoots, shoot length, and number of leaves) pertaining to regeneration of plantlets from leaf calli of Decalepis hamiltonii Wight. & Arn. (swallow root). The variables evaluated were the levels of sucrose, BA, and NAA each at two different concentrations. Response surfaces for shoot length and multiple shoot number were useful in achieving optimal levels of media constituents and in understanding their interactions, but response surfaces for number of leaves were not. The data indicate that sucrose, BA, and NAA levels may be manipulated to increase or decrease quality factors chosen. This approach may be useful in developing a micropropagation protocol for D. hamiltonii. Chemical names used: benzyladenine (BA); napthaleneacetic acid (NAA).
Ki-Cheol Son, Ray F. Severson, Richard F. Arrendale, and Stanley J. Kays
Methodology was developed for the extraction of surface components of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] storage roots. Surface components of storage roots were quantitatively extracted with methylene chloride using 8-minute ultrasonication. After removal of the solvent, the extract was treated with 3 Tri Sil-Z:1 trimethylsilylimidazol (v/v) to convert components with hydroxyl moieties to silyl ethers and then separated on a SE-54 fused silica capillary column. Distinctly different gas chromatography profiles were found between lines displaying moderate levels of resistance (`Resisto', `Regal', `Jewel') to the sweetpotato weevil [Cylas formicarius elgantulus (summers)] and weevil-susceptible lines (`Centennial', SC 1149-19, W-115), indicating a possible role of surface components in insect response. Chromatographic fractionation techniques were developed for separation of major components or groups of components. The results will allow subsequent bioassaying for the presence of an ovipositional stimulant(s) and other weevil behavior-modulating compounds and their chemical characterization.
Xia Chun-hua and Chen Jian-hua
. The fitted polynomial equation was then illustrated using three-dimensional surface plots to visualize the relationships among the responses of the variables. Results and Analysis Analysis of the adsorption of N and P and the Ca released by dissolution
Rizwan Maqbool, David Percival, Qamar Zaman, Tess Astatkie, Sina Adl, and Deborah Buszard
the second objective was to recommend fertilizer rates that optimize these same factors. We chose to use response surface methodology and canonical analysis as aids in modeling and examining the relationships between fertilizer rates and plant
Vanessa S. Gordon and Jack E. Staub
chilling response between these historic experiments and those reported here are the result of dissimilarities in test methodology rather than chilling damage quantification, because all experiments used the visual damage rating standards set forth in
environmental factors, and show the dynamics of human population and the food supply over the centuries. The Introduction is followed by a chapter on methodology for studying plant responses to the environmental factors considered. The physiology of plant growth
Waltram Ravelombola, Jun Qin, Yuejin Weng, Beiquan Mou, and Ainong Shi
of a fast and cost-effective methodology. To the best of our knowledge, there is no reported methodology on salt tolerance phenotyping in cowpea. Salt phenotyping can be carried in fields. However, the uncontrolled factors such as differences in soil
Dana Sullivan, Jing Zhang, Alexander R. Kowalewski, Jason B. Peake, William F. Anderson, F. Clint Waltz Jr., and Brian M. Schwartz
, and M. Graham (eds.). Standardization of analytical methodology for feeds. Intl. Dev. Res. Ctr., Ottawa, ON, Canada McCann, S.E. Huang, B. 2007 Effects of trinexapac-ethyl foliar application on creeping bentgrass responses to combined drought and heat