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applied in two split sidedressings [Rural Development Administration ( RDA, 2006 )]. In addition, the quantity of mineral fertilizer should be reduced to a third based on the recommended rates of N, P, and K to produce certified products without

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epinastic symptomology 8 months after application. In a separate study, Clark and Braverman in 1998 also reported that glyphosate applied at 1/2, 1/4, and 1/10 of the use rate 27 d after transplant reduced ‘Beauregard’ U.S. No. 1 and total marketable yield

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because trees are generally devoid of branches within 1 m of ground level ( Hong et al., 2018 ), application inefficiencies caused by overapplication and off-target application are compounded in nurseries. For example, even at a reduced rate of 700 L⋅ha −1

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will survive postproduction water stress ( Jones, 2002 ). Fertilizer toning by reducing production fertilizer rate throughout production or by decreasing or ceasing end-of-production fertilization rate for 3 weeks or more increased postproduction

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stressors are known to create source–sink imbalances that can inhibit gene expression related to the production of chloroplast protein complexes, which can have a lasting negative effect on the photosynthesis rate (P n ) ( Balachandran et al. 1997 ). This

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. Limited attention has been paid to reducing flow rate and increasing the irrigation duration as a means to reduce leaching below the root zone. Currently available drip tape flow rates range between 15 and 24 gal/100 ft per hour for 12-inch emitter spacing

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-impermeable layers (such as ethylene vinyl alcohol, nylon, or polyaminides) between polyethylene layers ( Wang et al., 1997 ). The use of VIF can minimize fumigant emissions, increase fumigant retention over time, and reduce the rate needed for effective pest control

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reduced operating pressure irrigation system, and (C) ideal continuous irrigation at flow rates that match hourly ETc. Hourly crop water requirement and ETc were estimated based on a reference evapotranspiration of 0.18 inches/acre (11.298 mm·ha −1 ) [or

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Chemical rates for commercial apple orchards are derived from replicated single-tree spray studies based upon dilute (>3740 l/ha) amounts of carrier to standard trees and are not adjusted to tree size. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a season long pest management program where rates had been reduced to 60% of standard recommended rates on trellised apple trees. The experimental unit consisted of 4 trellised rows of apples planted in 1976. The cultivars in the study were `McInstosh', Golden Delicious, and spur and nonspur `Delicious'. Treatments were full rate (100), 60% of the full rate (60) and a control (0). Disease and insects damage was monitored periodically throughout the season and damage was assessed at harvest on the spur `Delicious' and `Golden Delicious' fruit. During the experiment it was discovered that the orchard used had developed resistance to benomyl resulting in some apple scab present even in the 100 treatment. There was a reduction in the level of scab however in the 60 and the 100 trt compared to the 0 trt. At harvest the major diseases observed in the 0 trt blocks was sooty blotch and flyspeck. Insect damage was minimal. Results from the study suggest that pesticide rates may be reduced by 40% with little impact upon fruit quality.

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Paclobutrazol applied as a soil drench at 0, 1, 10, 100, or 1000 μg a.i./g soil reduced photosynthetic CO2 uptake rate of leaves formed before paclobutrazol treatment within 3 to 5 days of treatment and the reductions were maintained for 15 days after treatment. The percentage of recently assimilated 14C exported from the source leaf was reduced only at the highest paclobutrazol dose, and there was little effect of treatment on the partitioning of exported 14C between the various sinks. In response to increasing doses of paclobutrazol, particularly at the higher doses, an increasing proportion of recent photoassimilates was maintained in a soluble form in all plant components. Reduced demand for photoassimilates as a result of the inhibition of vegetative growth may have contributed to a reduction in photosynthetic CO2 uptake rate, but this reduction in photosynthesis rate could not be attributed to a feedback inhibition caused by a buildup of starch in the leaves. Paclobutrazol had only a minor effect, if any, on photosynthetic electron transport. Chemical name used: β-[(4-chlorophenyl) methyl]-α-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol).

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