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Red maple ( Acer rubrum L.), which is native to the eastern United States, is a deciduous woody ornamental plant popularly known for its outstanding fall color. In the United States, red maple is an important component of the woody ornamental

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lighter colored containers on root growth and distribution may prove beneficial for a number of important nursery crops. Red maple and eastern redbud are examples of important species in the nursery industry because they are native to the United States

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Franksred red maple (Acer rubrum `Franksred') trees were sampled from nursery fields in 2003 and 2004 to determine the cause of a common foliar chlorosis. Plots in 21 and 39 different nurseries were identified in 2003 and 2004, respectively. A single plot from each nursery was sampled in June of each year, whereas two to four plots per nursery were sampled in September. Each plot consisted of 20 consecutive trees in a single row. From each plot, a foliar tissue sample was analyzed for the complete range of essential nutrients. Plant height, stem diameter, leaf chlorophyll content, and a subjective plant quality rating were also recorded. From each plot, a soil sample was collected and analyzed for pH, EC, organic matter, and a range of essential nutrients. The foliar chlorosis was determined to be incited by manganese (Mn) deficiency. Tissue Mn was highly correlated with soil pH. Chlorotic plants were smaller with less stem diameter than nonchlorotic plants. Sufficiency ranges for tissue and soil tests were determined and are provided for red maple nursery production.

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Average leaf area (LA) and petiole length (PL) was determined for 13 red maple selections May–Sept. 1993. Bloom types were determined based on the predominate flower structures present in Spring 1993 and 1994. Leaves were collected from an existing field study installed in Mar. 1990. Trees were drip-irrigated throughout the study, thereby eliminating moisture stress concerns. Acer×freemanii `Scarsen' (LA = 131.5 cm2), `Morgan' (LA = 93.6 cm2), and `Autumn Blaze' (LA = 83.9 cm2) had the largest leaves. Acer rubrum `Autumn Flame' (LA = 40.0 cm2) had the smallest leaves. Acer rubrum `October Glory' (PL = 17.1 cm) had the longest petioles followed by `Fairview Flame' (PL = 15.4 cm). Shortest cultivar petioles were on A. rubrum `Franksred' (PL = 9.3 cm) and `Tilford' (PL = 9.3 cm). Flowers were predominately pistillate on `Autumn Flame', `Franksred', `Morgan', `October Glory', `Redskin', `Scarsen', and `Schlesingeri'. Flowers were predominately staminate on `Fairview Flame', `Karpick', `Northwood', and `Tilford'. `Autumn Blaze' did not exhibit flowers in 1993 or 1994. Some seedlings in the study were pistillate, and others were staminate.

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overview As reported by Ingram and Hall (2015) , the functional unit for the PIP system in the lower midwest was also a 5-cm-caliper red maple in a no. 25 container. This model system was also based on interviews with four nursery managers and guided by

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Abstract

Variation analysis showed significant variation among red maple (Acer rubrum L.) progenies grown from seed collected throughout the species’ natural range with respect to height, diameter, autumn color, winter injury, earliness of flusing and cessation of growth. Northern progenies showed slowest growth, most reddish autumn color, earliest flushing and budset, and least winter injury. Most traits were significantly correlated with several geographic and climatic variables, and genetic and phenotypic correlations among traits indicated that multiple-trait selection could be effective.

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Dormant bud tissue from two or more trees representing 18 red maple (Acer rubrum L.) cultivars was subjected to isozyme analyses using starch-gel electrophoresis. Polymorphic enzymes resolved were alcohol dehydrogenase, peroxidase, phosphoglucase isomerase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, leucine aminopeptidase, acid phosphatase, and malic dehydrogenase. An enzyme pattern or combination of patterns was useful in identifying individual cultivars, these included: `Autumn Blaze', `Autumn Flame', `Bowhall', `Celebration', `Columnare', `Curtis', `Doric', `Firedance', `Gerling', Y.J. Drake', `Morgan', `Northwood', `Scarlet Sentinel', `Schlesingeri', and `Tilford'. `Armstrong', `October Glory', and `Red Sunset' could not be distinguished from each other on the basis of enzymes examined in this study.

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Performance evaluation of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) selections in the southeastern U.S. was initiated in November 1988. Seven cultivars, `Autumn Blaze', `Autumn Flame', `Morgan', `Northwood', `October Glory', `Franksred' (Red Sunset TM) and `Schlesingeri', from tissue culture and a group of seedlings obtained from a single source were container grown for 18 months prior to field planting in March 1990. All plants have received drip irrigation in the field. Since field planting, 'Autumn Flame', and 'Autumn Blaze' exhibit the greatest growth rate based on annual height and caliper data. 'Schlesingeri' and 'Northwood' had the least growth. Gas-exchange measurements taken in June 1992, showed 'Schlesingeri' and 'Northwood' to have the greatest photosynthetic activity and transpirational water loss while 'October Glory' and 'Frankred' had the least.

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In 1991, a cooperative project with the U.S. National Arboretum in Washington, D.C., was initiated in Tifton, Ga. (USDA hardiness zone 8a) to evaluate red maples (Acer rubrum L.) potentially suitable for the coastal plain region of the southeastern U.S. Greatest annual height growth across all cultivars over 6 years was for `Alapaha', a seedling selection from southern Georgia with annual height growth of 35 inches (88.0 cm), and several seedling selections from northern Florida with annual height increases in excess of 33 inches (86.0 cm). Selections showing the least average annual height growth were NA-56024 and NA-57772 (`Red Rocket'). For commercially available cultivars, the most dependable for fall color in Tifton was `October Glory'®. In addition, two new selections from the National Arboretum have also shown excellent fall color—`Somerset' and `Brandywine'.

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Abstract

Wound closure and growth data were determined over a 2-year period for 12 cultivars of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and branch and trunk wounds were analyzed for extent of associated discolored wood. A cultivar effect was noted in both closure and compartmentalization rates. ‘Armstrong’, ‘Doric’, ‘Gerling’, and ‘October Glory’ exhibited below average closure rates; ‘Schlesinger’, ‘Autumn Flame’, and ‘Autumn Glory’ had a more rapid closure rate in response to wounding. ‘Red Sunset’ and ‘Schlesinger’ were above average and ‘Bowhall’ and ‘Scanlon’ were below average in capacity to compartmentalize wounds. Previous years' twig extension growth was a good prediction of a plant's ability to close wounds. Higher nutrient levels of callus were associated with higher closure rates.

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