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water recycling investment, additional costs could include such capital expenditures as construction of a water storage pond or noncash costs such as the forgone net income (opportunity costs) from previous production on the area now dedicated to the

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. Ferraro (2015) also collected multipliers for various capital cost components, such as the cost of pond excavation per square foot of surface area. These multipliers were used to fill in gaps in the financial data of water recyclers who were interviewed

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containment or retention pond is often the best way to prevent potential environmental problems associated with nursery runoff ( Fain et al., 2000 ). In nurseries that capture runoff, collected water may be recycled to irrigate plants, either with or without

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Abstract

If wastewater is to be recycled safely for agricultural production the problems associated with using it on vegetables need to be known. The objective of this review is to determine those problems. Several earlier reviews dealing with the use of wastewater in agriculture have been published (5, 7, 9, 19, 27, 30, 31, 42). Raw wastewater, or primary effluent, is not considered in this paper because secondary effluent is the type of wastewater generally used for irrigation in the United States (42). Primary treatment involves only settling tanks, from which anything in the raw sewage that can float or sink is removed. Sewage from primary treatment is subjected in secondary treatment to the action of living microorganisms: e.g., activated-sludge processes, trickling filters, treatment ponds (42). Also, this paper is limited in discussion to municipal waste-water and does not mention wastewater from industry, including wastewater from vegetable-processing plants. This review is divided into 3 areas: physical, chemical, and biological problems.

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primarily in the water phase of surface waters ( Bondarenko and Gan, 2004 ). Pesticide runoff loads from production nurseries are a concern also because the persistence of some pesticides may be prolonged in nursery runoff sediments or recycling pond waters

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changing their production schedules and the value of their crops ( Majsztrik et al., 2011 ). One way to manage water runoff in container production is to convey rain and irrigation runoff to a containment pond for reuse ( Yeager, 2008 ). Recycling

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not use recycled water (a more general term for reused water such as from onsite ponds) in their greenhouse operations, compared with those who did use it. Table 2. Results from the logistic regression model on determining factors of willingness

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, physical layout restricts the adoption of WRT. For example, limited land or shallow water tables will deter some nurseries from regrading or digging ponds for recycled water, making it impossible to implement WRT regardless of public or private incentives

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Diminishing access to potable water sources is a growing concern throughout many regions in the United States. As such, nonpotable alternatives such as recycled (reclaimed) sources are being used to irrigate turfgrass landscapes ( Leinauer et

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, 2005 ; Hong et al., 2003 ). This practice generally involves collecting excess irrigation water and leachate in a reservoir such as a pond for subsequent irrigation. However, recycling of the water may disperse plant pathogens into crops through the

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