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al., 2004 ). Some cultivars have commercial potential that is still unexploited, especially in Brazil; however, quince production has been resumed in subtropical climates ( IBGE, 2017 ). The fruit from most quince cultivars are firm, acidic, and

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In 1987, a study consisting of 3 training systems (TS) [Supported modified leader (S), Free Palmette (P) and Mini-Tatura (MT)] with Anjou (A), Bartlett (B) and Flemish Beauty (FB) on Quince A & C and Provonce C134, in a high and ultradensity planting, was initiated on a fine sandy loam soil. Blossoms were counted and removed during 1988 to 1990 seasons. Palmette TS increased bloom efficiency (BE) but did not affect the number of florets/cluster. Quince C produced higher BE than either QA or C134. Bartlett had the highest BE followed by A & FB. Anjou exhibited more florets/cluster than either B or FB. Rootstock or TS did not influence this variable.

Irrespective of rootstock and training, the largest trees were FB followed by A & B. Quince C produced trees smaller than QA & C134. Mini-Tatura reduced tree size significantly compared to S & P. The cumulative yield for 1991 & 92 (5th and 6th leaves) was 85 tonnes/ha for MT compared to 35 & 37 for S and P respectively. Quince clones had no effect on yield, but A was significantly less productive than B or FB. Cultivar, rootstock or training did not affect mean fruit weight during 1992. Bartlett had higher number of pears/tree compared to A & FB. Palmette training system produced more pears per tree in comparison to S and MT.

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. Asian pear and quince cultivar evaluation. Five asian pears on OH × F rootstock and five cultivars of quince on Quince A rootstock were obtained from Orange County Nursery (Orange County, CA) and planted at 2.4 × 4.9 m spacing in Spring 2002. Trees were

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particularly the genetic factors ( Wang and Cao, 1996 ). Not only different species, but also different cultivars of the same species present variations in their antioxidant profile. For example, a recent study has shown that the apple cultivar may

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to maximize yield of the new blush pear cultivar ‘ANP-0131’ should consider high density (≈2200 trees/ha) plantings on D6 or Quince A/Beurre Hardy rootstocks. Quince A/Beurre Hardy rootstocks produce fruit earlier and set fruit well, but the high crop

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The similarity or differences of peroxidase isozymes in rootstocks and scions may influence their graft compatibility. This study was conducted to identify peroxidase isozymes and/or other proteins that may be used as markers to predict compatibility between pear and various quince clones. `Bartlett' (BT) and `Beurre Hardy' (BH) pear cultivars were budded on 13 selected quince clones and quince A (QA) rootstocks; BT and BH cultivars are known to be incompatible and compatible, respectively, with quince root stocks. Bark and cambial tissues were taken from unbudded rootstocks, scions, and 4 cm above and below the graft union for isozyme analysis. Samples were collected 1, 2, 3, and 12 months after grafting. In addition, samples from the graft unions were also analyzed 12 months after grafting. Isozyme separation was performed by starch gel electrophoresis. Many isozyme bands were commonly observed in the two scions; however, one anodal peroxidase was detected in BH but not in BT samples. This isozyme was also detected in QA and in all but four quince clones. Protein profiles of bark tissues from QA and three pear scions (BT, `Bosc', and P. crassane) were determined using SDS-PAGE. In general, protein profiles of the three pear cultivars appeared remarkably similar; however, P. crassane (a compatible pear cultivar on QA) had a 63 kDa protein, which was absent in BT and faintly observed in `Bosc' (intermediate compatibility). Our results suggest that these isoperoxidase and polypeptide could be associated with pear/quince graft compatibility.

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The similarity or differences of peroxidase isozymes in rootstocks and scions may influence their graft compatibility. This study was conducted to identify peroxidase isozymes that may be used as markers to predict compatibility between pear (Pyrus communis L.) and various quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) clones. `Bartlett' (BT) and `Beurre Hardy' (BH) pear cultivars are known to form incompatible and compatible grafts, respectively, with quince rootstocks. The two pear scion cultivars were budded on `quince A' (QA), `quince BA-29', and 15 selected quince clones from Turkey. Bark and cambial tissues were taken from nonbudded rootstocks and scions, and 4 cm above and below the graft union for peroxidase isozyme analysis performed by starch gel electrophoresis. Isoperoxidase analyses were also performed on samples from the graft unions collected 12 months after grafting. Many isozyme bands were observed commonly in the two scions; however, one anodal peroxidase A was detected in BH (compatible scion) but not in BT (incompatible scion) samples. This isoperoxidase was also detected in QA, Quince BA-29, and nine of the Turkish quince clones. Another isoperoxidase, band B, was detected in BH but not in BT or any of the rootstocks. However, the compatible (BH/QA) and moderately compatible (BT/BA-29) graft union tissues contained bands A and B whereas incompatible graft union tissues (BT/QA) lacked both. Graft union samples involving BT and five Turkish quince clones (705, 609-2, 702, 804, and 806) had both `A' and `B' isoperoxidases while one or both of these bands were absent in nonbudded graft partners. Field observations of 3.5 year-old grafts of BT and Turkish quince clones revealed that the vegetative growth (vigor) of BT scion was significantly greater, when grafted on these five clones, than that in graft combinations with other clones. We suggest that matching of isoperoxidase `A' in quince rootstocks and BH pear scion may be associated with a compatible graft combination. Additionally, presence of isoperoxidases `A' and `B' in the graft union tissues may be used as an indicator to predict a compatible graft between BT and quince rootstocks.

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Abstract

The pear cultivars ‘Anjou,’ ‘Bartlett’. ‘Bose,’ ‘Cornice,’ ‘Seckel’ and ‘Packham's Triumph’ grown on 9 rootstocks were observed for tolerance to pear decline, tree size, bloom density, yield, fruit weight and leaf nutrient content. Cultivars on Old Home clonal rootstock or Old Home on nurse roots of Mailing Quince A, Winter Nelis seedling or Bartlett seedling were smaller, had lower yield efficiency and greater uptake of Ca, Mg and Mn than when worked directly on Winter Nelis or Bartlett seedling rootstocks or Pyrus calleryana Decne. Winter Nelis and Bartlett seedling rootstocks were similar in performance but Winter Nelis seedlings had a lower yield efficiency than did Bartlett seedlings. Both had better uptake of Fe and Zn but were less precocious than P. calleryana. Fruit size was increased on P. calleryana and P. betulaefolia Bunge seedling rootstocks, particularly when topworked with ‘Seckel’. Cultivars with Call rootstock had greater uptake of K than other rootstocks. A hybrid of P. nivalis Jacq. as a rootstock was inferior to other seedling rootstocks.

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‘Syrgiannidis’ is an early-maturing pear cultivar originating from a cross between the cultivars Santa Maria and Kontoula (Greek local cultivar). Fruits are pyriform in shape with maximum diameter of ≈48 mm, mean fruit length 54 mm, and mean fruit

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The first outbreak of fire blight incited by Erwinia amylovora (Burr.) Winslow et al. occurred on pome fruits in Turkey in 1985, and it is now one of the most serious diseases of pear, apple, quince, and loquat (Oktem and Benlioglu, 1988). In this study, experiments were conducted in Konya Province to evaluate the efficacy of Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) and bactericides for control of the shoot blight phase of fire blight and control of shoot growth on the different apple cultivars (Gala, Red Elstar, Pinova, Jonagored) on M9 rootstock in 2002 to 2003. Streptomycin provided 84.38% to 95.24% and 85.28% to 89.97% disease control in 2002 and 2003, respectively. Copper complex was not so effective against shoot blight phase of the disease, and it reduced disease by 16.18% to 27.75% and 14.48% to 19.06% in 2002 and 2003, respectively. Results of VAM application were encouraging, indicating a reduction of fire blight by Glomus intraradices of between 9.7% and 50.5% in 2002 and between 23.9% and 48.4% in 2003, respectively.

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