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Thomas O. Green, Alexandra Kravchenko, John N. Rogers III, and Joseph M. Vargas Jr.

biotic stress, loss of putting green resulting from collar encroachment, excessive organic matter accumulation, need for architectural design improvement, and invasion of undesirable turfgrass species affecting surface playability ( Foy and Gilhuly, 2015

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Jordan M. Craft, Christian M. Baldwin, Wayne H. Philley, James D. McCurdy, Barry R. Stewart, Maria Tomaso-Peterson, and Eugene K. Blythe

negatively affects putting green performance ( Carrow, 1998 ; Fontanier et al., 2011 ; McCarty et al., 2007 ; Turgeon, 2005 ). The United States Golf Association (USGA) putting green construction method was developed to provide near-ideal soil physical

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Kyle Briscoe, Grady Miller, Scott Brinton, Dan Bowman, and Charles Peacock

perceived to be a major limitation to the use of zoysiagrass as a putting green turfgrass. Similar to bermudagrass, increasing N rates and application frequencies have been used with limited success to maximize zoysiagrass establishment from sprigs. Carroll

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Ruying Wang, James W. Hempfling, Bruce B. Clarke, and James A. Murphy

superintendents from routinely implementing topdressing during the growing season. Sand size distributions specified for putting green construction are often used as guidelines to select topdressing sand, which typically recommend sand containing less than 20

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Christian M. Baldwin, Haibo Liu, Lambert B. McCarty, Hong Luo, Joe Toler, and Steven H. Long

growing conditions vary; therefore, the types of permissible traffic on putting greens need regional investigation. The objectives of this study were to assess variable traffic impacts to a creeping bentgrass putting green during winter months and

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John B. Stiglbauer, Haibo Liu, Lambert B. McCarty, Dara M. Park, Joe E. Toler, and Kendal Kirk

monthly N was increased from 0 to 2.5 g·m −2 . There is a lack of published research regarding N rates, N sources, and sprigging rates for warm-season putting green establishment. However, a few seeding rates studies about zoysiagrass establishment were

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Christian M. Baldwin, Haibo Liu, Lambert B. McCarty, Hong Luo, and Joe E. Toler

Creeping bentgrass [ Agrostis stolonifera var. palustris (Huds.)], a C 3 plant, is widely used as a putting green turfgrass in cooler climate areas and the transition zone ( McCarty, 2005 ). However, as a result of seasonal temperature variation

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Eric M. Lyons, Peter J. Landschoot, and David R. Huff

-type annual bluegrass (‘PSU-97-1’, ‘PSU-97-2’, ‘PSU-97-3’) were seeded in monocultures into 2.75 × 4-m plots on an experimental putting green at a rate of 36.5 kg·ha −1 during late Sept. 1999. The cultivars were arranged in a randomized strip

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Patrick E. McCullough, Haibo Liu, Lambert B. McCarty, and Joe E. Toler

Dwarf-type bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) putting greens tolerate long-term mowing heights of 3.2 mm but require heavy nitrogen (N) fertilizations that increase ball roll resistance. Applying a plant growth regulator, such as trinexapac-ethyl (TE), could reduce uneven shoot growth from high N fertility and improve putting green ball roll distances. Field experiments were conducted from April to August 2003 and 2004 in Clemson, SC to investigate effects of ammonium nitrate applied at 6, 12, 18, or 24 kg N/ha per week with TE applied at 0 or 0.05 kg a.i. per ha every 3 weeks on `TifEagle' bermudagrass ball roll distances (BRD). BRD were measured weekly with a 38-cm stimpmeter in the morning (900 to 1100 hr) and evening (>1700 hr) beginning 1 wk after initial TE treatments. Interactions were not detected among N, TE, or time of day. TE increased BRD about 15% from non-TE treated. BRD was reduced with increased N rate and from am to pm; however, bermudagrass treated with TE averaged 10% longer PM BRD than am distances of non-TE treated. Overall, increased N fertility and diurnal shoot growth may reduce BRD but TE will be an effective tool for mitigating these effects on bermudagrass putting greens. Chemical name used: [4-(cyclopropyl-[α]-hydroxymethylene)-3,5-dioxo-cyclohexane carboxylic acid ethyl ester] (trinexapac-ethyl).

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Patrick E. McCullough, Haibo Liu, and Lambert B. McCarty

Trinexapac-ethyl (TE) is a plant growth regulator registered for periodic applications on creeping bentgrass greens but ball roll as affected by various TE regimens have not been reported. Field experiments were conducted in Clemson, S.C., from May to July 2003 and 2004 on an `L-93' creeping bentgrass putting green. Turf received a total of 0.2 kg·ha–1 a.i. of TE over 12 weeks in three application regimens: 0.017 kg·ha–1 per week, 0.033 kg·ha–1 per 2 weeks, and 0.05 kg·ha-1 per 3 weeks plus a control. Ball roll distances were measured weekly with a stimpmeter in the morning (900 to 1100 hr) and evening (>1700 hr). Morning ball roll distances were generally longer than evening. Ball roll distances increased from June to July 2003 and from May to July 2004, likely resulting from greater bentgrass summer heat stress during the test period. Turf treated with biweekly and triweekly TE regimens had enhanced ball roll on three and four dates, respectively, but inconsistencies occurred likely from reduced efficacy with greater time between repeated applications. Weekly TE applications enhanced ball roll distances from the untreated by 5% to 8% on six dates. Turf injury did not occur following TE applications regardless of regimen. Overall, weekly TE applications increased ball roll distances more frequently than biweekly and triweekly regimens, but enhancements were inconsistent over the 2 years. Chemical name used: [4-(cyclopropyl-[α]-hydroxymethylene)-3,5-dioxo-cyclohexane carboxylic acid ethyl ester] (trinexapac-ethyl); (tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) (chlorothalonil); [methyl(E)-2-(2-(6-(2-cyanophenoxy) pyrimidin-4-yloxy)phenyl)-3-methoxyacrylate] (azoxystrobin); [aluminum tris(0-ethyl phosphonate)] (fosetyl-al); [N-(2,6-Dimethylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl) alanine methyl ester] (metalaxyl); [(1-[[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-propyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl) -methyl]-14-1,2,4-triazole] (propiconazole).