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stress”, typically increases alternate bearing intensity ( I ; Pearce and Dobersek-Urbanc, 1967 ), which is perhaps the economically most important biological problem faced by commercial pecan enterprises. Timely use of mechanized hedge-type pruning as a

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An ever increasing cost:price squeeze on the profitability of pecan (Carya illinoinensis) farming is driving a search for alternate husbandry approaches. `Wichita' and `Western' trees maintained at relatively high tree population density, by mechanized hedge pruning and topping, produced greater nut yield than an orchard treatment in which tree population density was reduced by tree thinning (144% for `Wichita' and 113% for `Western Schley'). Evaluation of three different hedge pruning strategies, over a 20-year period, identified a discrete canopy hedge pruning and topping strategy using a 2-year cycle, as being superior to that of a discrete canopy hedge pruning and topping strategy using an 8-year cycle, but not as good as a continuous canopy hedge pruning and topping strategy using a 1-year cycle. An evaluation of 21 commercial cultivars indicated that nut yields of essentially all cultivars can be relatively high if properly hedge pruned [annual in-shell nut yields of 2200 to 3626 lb/acre (2465.8 to 4064.1 kg·ha-1), depending on cultivar]. Comparative alternate bearing intensity and nut quality characteristics are reported for 21 cultivars. These evaluations indicate that pecan orchards can be highly productive, with substantially reduced alternate bearing, when managed via a hedge-row-like pruning strategy giving narrow canopies [3403 lb/acre (3814.2 kg·ha-1) for `Wichita' and 3472 lb/acre (3891.5 kg·ha-1) for `Western Schley']. North-south-oriented (N-S) hedgerows produced higher yields that did east-west (E-W) hedgerows (yield for N-S `Wichita' was 158% that of E-W trees and N-S `Western Schley' was 174% that of E-W trees).

These data indicate that mechanized hedge pruning and topping offers an attractive alternative to the conventional husbandry paradigm.

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Annual pruning was compared with nonpruning for 8 years and to two biennial pruning treatments for 4 years in a mature full-canopied `Ashley' walnut (Juglans regia L.) orchard. Light penetration and nut distribution through the canopy was improved by pruning. Nut size and percent edible kernel was consistently lower in nonpruned trees than in trees pruned annually or biennially. Yield from annually pruned trees was not significantly different from that of the nonpruned trees because of the removal of fruitful spurs. Yield of biennially pruned trees was similar to annually pruned or nonpruned trees in the year following pruning, but yield was usually greater during years in which trees were not pruned.

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Abstract

Young peach trees 1) trained to a single shoot or 2) allowed to branch, were pruned by removing 50% of current growth at either or both of 2 summer dates. Another group of trees had 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% shoot growth removed by pruning in midseason. Net photosynthesis (Pn) and transpiration (Tr) were increased within 3 days after pruning at either date. Plants pruned twice at 30-day intervals had a 2nd cycle of increased Pn and Tr, with rates returning to levels of unpruned controls within 24 days. Distribution of water soluble carbohydrates in various plant tissues was not altered by pruning. Pruning at 60 days reduced root starch, whereas pruning again at 90 days increased total root carbohydrate content. Pruning early in the season increased lateral shoot formation, and terminal bud formation was delayed by pruning. Plant dry weight was reduced by all pruning treatments, with delayed pruning and increasing pruning severity resulting in greatest reductions. Distribution of dry weight was not altered substantially by pruning, and a balance of growth was maintained between different plant parts.

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Palms are arborescent monocotyledons that do not usually branch along their stem. Consequently, pruning landscape palms is essentially the removal of inflorescences and leaves from the lower portion of the canopy or, in the case of multiple trunked

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produce summer flowers from new growth. Catchpole (1963) gives recommendations for pruning japanese spirea ( Spiraea japonica ), margitae spirea ( Spiraea × margaritae ), and menzie's spirea ( Spiraea douglasii var. menziesii ), all of which have

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Abstract

Summer pruning, dormant pruning, and growth-regulator treatments were applied for 5 years on newly planted ‘McIntosh’ and ‘Melba’ apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) on Alnarp 2 and Mailing 26 rootstocks. All forms of pruning reduced tree growth and yield. Light-to-moderate pruning was the best treatment for forming tree canopies. The reported stimulative effect of summer pruning on flower bud formation was not supported by this research. Pinching shoot tips led to a new secondary growth and inhibited rather than stimulated flower bud formation.

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In the United States, the apple ( Malus × domestica ) industry contributes ≈$2.75 billion to the economy ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2020 ). Pruning is an important cultivation technique that impacts the fruit quality and usefulness of

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on cultural and production requirements. Pruning is an important cultural practice for commercial fruit production operations; however, practices vary by crop ( Kovaleski et al. 2015 ). The benefits of pruning include increased fruit yield and quality

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harvesting and pruning, and improving water-use efficiency ( Romero-Trigueros et al. 2019 ). Row orientation and tree height are important variants in this system because they affect the outcome in terms of light interception and distribution within the tree

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