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Rachel A. Itle and Eileen A. Kabelka

human health by acting as sources of provitamin A or by acting as protective antioxidants required for proper reproduction, growth, and development; a normal functioning ocular system; epithelial cell integrity; and immune system functionality ( FAO

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Neda Keyhaninejad, Richard D. Richins, and Mary A. O’Connell

; these pigments are important for attracting pollinators and seed dispensers. In humans and other animals, specific carotenoids provide essential vitamin precursors; β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin are pro-vitamin A forms of carotenoids ( Yeum and Russell

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Silver Tumwegamire, Regina Kapinga, Patrick R. Rubaihayo, Don R. LaBonte, Wolfgang J. Grüneberg, Gabriela Burgos, Thomas zum Felde, Rosemary Carpio, Elke Pawelzik, and Robert O.M. Mwanga

-fleshed sweetpotatoes (OFSP) with DM of ≈20% to 30% and high provitamin A carotenoids ( Grüneberg et al., 2009 ; Martin and Jones, 1986 ). The taste preference in sub-Saharan Africa is clearly the dry and low sweet type, which is nearly exclusively white

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Megan J. Bowman, David K. Willis, and Philipp W. Simon

)], maize [ Zea mays ( Buckner et al., 1996 ; Harjes et al., 2008 ; Vallabhaneni and Wurtzel, 2009 )], and marigold [ Tagetes erecta ( Moehs et al., 2001 )]. Of these previously studied plant species, none contributes as much to overall provitamin A

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Jane Kahia, Peter Kanze Sallah, Lucien Diby, Christophe Kouame, Margaret Kirika, Simeon Niyitegeka, and Theodore Asiimwe

considered an interesting crop from the nutritional viewpoint as it is comparatively high in protein (1.5–2 g/100 g of food), vitamin C (30–45 mg/100 g), and E (1.85 mg/100 g), provitamin A, mineral elements (K, P), low in carbohydrates (4.7 g/100 g), and in

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Fekadu Gurmu, Shimelis Hussein, and Mark Laing

another major focus area, among which improving β-carotene content (provitamin A) is the top priority. Breeding for high β-carotene content is crucial because vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a serious health problem that results in blindness, weak resistance

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C.R. Brown, C.G. Edwards, C.-P. Yang, and B.B. Dean

Potatoes with orange flesh were found in cultivated diploid (2n = 24) potato populations derived from Solanum stenotomum Juz. et Buk. and S.phureja Juz. et Buk. The orange flesh trait was found to be controlled by an allele at the Y- locus designated Or. Or is dominant over Y and y, which control yellow and white flesh, respectively. In a comparison of white and orange flesh segregants from crosses, the orange was associated with large amounts of zeaxanthin, a xanthophyll previously not reported as a constituent of potato flesh carotenoids. The combined total of lutein and zeaxanthin was four times higher than the highest carotenoid composition previously reported for potato, this is about one-sixth the total carotenoid content of carrot with standard carotenoid levels, although lutein and zeaxanthin do not possess provitamin A activity.

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T.E. Morelock, J.A. Kirkpatrick, D.R. Motes, J.C. Correll, and F.J. Daniello

The current national trends in nutrition have resulted in a very high interest in the benefits of proper diet. It is very apparent that adding foods high in antioxidants to the human diet can have drastic affects on human health by reducing the risk of cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary disease, as well as age-related degenerative diseases. It is well-known and well-documented that spinach is one of the very best vegetables in antioxidant potential. It is high in beta-carotene (provitamin A) and is also very high in lutein (a carotenoid that is a strong antioxidant but with no vitamin A activity). Lutein has also been documented to have the potential to significantly reduce macular degeneration in humans when added to the diet on a regular basis. With these health benefits in mind the Univ. of Arkansas is releasing the spinach breeding line that has been tested as 88-310. It is a slow-growing semi-savoy that exhibits excellent color and has a moderate level of white rust resistance. It has excellent plant type, producing a very attractive compact rosette plant that is very desirable for root cut whole plants or for various types of clipped spinach. It is best-suited to both fall and overwinter production in Arkansas and for winter production in the Texas wintergarden. Seed for tests can be obtained by contacting T.E. Morelock, Dept. of Horticulture, Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701.

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I.L. Goldman

33 ORAL SESSION 6 (Abstr. 464–471) Cross-commodity: Genetics/Breeding/Biotechnology Monday, 24 July, 10:00 a.m.–12:00 noon