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Stefania De Pascale, Luisa Dalla Costa, Simona Vallone, Giancarlo Barbieri, and Albino Maggio

strategies to improve irrigation efficiency in vegetable crop production. We refer to recently published literature for in-depth analyses on the physiology and molecular biology of WUE ( Hsiao et al., 2007 ; Yoo et al., 2009 ). Efficiency in the context of

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Tej P. Acharya, Mark S. Reiter, Greg Welbaum, and Ramón A. Arancibia

growth and production ( Acharya et al., 2019 ; Arancibia, 2019 ). Furthermore, there is extensive research regarding use of rowcovers for season extension in vegetable crops, but nutrient requirements and use efficiency still need to be addressed

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Pedro García-Caparrós, Alfonso Llanderal, and María Teresa Lao

uptake efficiencies and their losses in the production of container plants. We investigated fern leaf lavender because it is a native Mediterranean species that is frequently used in landscapes due to its ability to adapt to stressful environmental

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Craig D. Stanley and Gurpal Toor

reduce the potential for water and nutrient use efficiency ( Smajstrla et al., 2002c ). Irrigation methods for horticultural crop production in Florida consist of subirrigation (seepage) using water table management, drip irrigation, microsprinkler, and

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Xin Zhao, Qianqian Dong, Shubang Ni, Xiyong He, Hai Yue, Liang Tao, Yanli Nie, Caixian Tang, Fusuo Zhang, and Jianbo Shen

rhizosphere dynamics of macadamia, thus contributing to efficient nutrient mobilization and use, and puts forward the strategies of nutrient management for improving nutrient-use efficiency in sustainable macadamia production. Macadamia Development in China

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Marc W. van Iersel, Matthew Chappell, and John D. Lea-Cox

Although irrigation control in ornamental production is commonly achieved with timers and/or with the experiential judgment of an irrigation manager, such methods are unlikely to provide water when needed and in the amount required by the crop

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Tej P. Acharya, Gregory E. Welbaum, and Ramón A. Arancibia

, 2016 ), and in the spring trials, when the outer leaves of the sprouts started to open, losing firmness (warm conditions). Water-use efficiency was determined in relation to growth and production parameters. Yield, number of sprouts, and plant dry

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K. Rachelle Goldman and Cary A. Mitchell

The day-neutral, semidwarf rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Ai-Nan-Tsao was grown in a greenhouse under summer conditions using high-pressure sodium lamps to extend the natural photoperiod. After allowing 2 weeks for germination, stand establishment, and thinning to a consistent planting density of 212 plants/m2, stands were maintained under continuous lighting for 35 or 49 days before shifting to 8- or 12-h photoperiods until harvest 76 days after planting. Non-shifted control treatments consisting of 8-, 12-, or 24-h photoperiods also were maintained throughout production. Tiller number increased as duration of exposure to continuous light increased before shifting to shorter photoperiods. However, shoot harvest index and yield efficiency rate were lower for all plants receiving continuous light than for those under the 8- or 12-h photoperiods. Stands receiving 12-h photoperiods throughout production had the highest grain yield per plant and equaled the 8-h-photoperiod control plants for the lowest tiller number per plant. As long as stands were exposed to continuous light, tiller formation continued. Shifting to shorter photoperiods late in the cropping cycle resulted in newly formed tillers that were either sterile or unable to mature grain before harvest. Late-forming tillers also suppressed yield of grain in early-forming tillers, presumably by competing for photosynthate or for remobilized assimilate during senescence. Stands receiving 12-h photoperiods throughout production not only produced the highest grain yield at harvest but had the highest shoot harvest index, which is important for resource-recovery strategies in advanced life-support systems proposed for space.

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Sylvia Letícia Oliveira Silva, Renato de Mello Prado, Gilmara Pereira da Silva, Gabriel Barbosa da Silva Júnior, Monica Lanzoni Rossi, and Leónides Castellanos González

), grains (BCG), boron use efficiency (UE), grain production (Prod.), and harvest index (HI) with (+S) or without (–S) sorbitol as a function of the concentrations of foliarly applied boron in cowpea. **Significant at 1% probability according to the F test

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Youssef Rouphael, Giampaolo Raimondi, Rosanna Caputo, and Stefania De Pascale

requirements of greenhouse tomato grown in closed rockwool culture with saline water Agr. Water Mgt. 88 73 82 De Pascale, S. Dalla Costa, L. Vallone, S. Barbieri, G. Maggio, A. 2011 Increasing water use efficiency in vegetable crop production: From plant to