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Hanna Y. Hanna and Kenneth D. Henderson

( Engindeniz, 2005 ). Energy cost is the second largest expense for greenhouse tomato production behind labor, and greenhouse heating consumes 70% to 80% of the total energy budget ( Sanford, 2005 ). The U.S. greenhouse tomato industry is a mix of many

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Benjamin L. Green, Richard W. Harper and Daniel A. Lass

the uncertainty faced when planting oak trees grown under different nursery production systems. The probabilities represent the areas under the normal probability distributions to the left of a specific cost per tree. These probabilities allow the

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Erin M. Silva, Rebecca Claypool, Jim Munsch, John Hendrickson, Paul Mitchell and Jean Mills

, 2009 ; Varner and Otto, 2008 ). The determination of the cost of production for organic vegetables grown in the upper midwestern United States is further complicated by the highly diversified nature of both crop choices and markets by most organic

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Emmanuel Alves Dos Santos Hecher, Constance L. Falk, Juliette Enfield, Steven J. Guldan and Mark E. Uchanski

nights (and in some areas, days) are below freezing. Low-cost, passive-solar high tunnels seem to be an ideal fit for farmers in this region. In recent years, New Mexico agricultural producers have adopted high tunnel technology, but detailed production

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Kevin C. Power, Jay B. Fitzgerald, George E. Meyer and Dennis D. Schulte

supported by Grant no. 87–505 from the Nebraska Energy Office and by the Agricultural Research Division of the Univ. of Nebraska. We thank Stacy Adams for his assistance. The use of product names does not imply endorsement by the authors. The cost of

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Charles E. Barrett, Xin Zhao and Alan W. Hodges

vegetable production in the United States. ( Rivard et al., 2010b ). Lee et al. (2010) reported prices of grafted transplants between $0.40 and $1.20 for various crops. Grafted tomato transplants can cost between $0.60 and $0.90 per plant without factoring

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C.C. Montgomery, B.K. Behe, J.L. Adrian and K.M. Tilt

Aboveground container production revolutionized woody plant production. In-ground pot-in-pot container production combines the benefits of container production with traditional field production. Our objective was to determine the specific costs of production for field-grown, aboveground container, and pot-in-pot production methods for Lagerstroemia indica. We found differences in production cost with varying levels of input required by each production method. Pot-in-pot production systems had higher fixed and variable costs and a higher initial capital investment compared to the other two production methods. However, per unit production costs were similar to aboveground container production due to lower labor and equipment requirements.

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Lucas G. Paranhos, Charles E. Barrett, Lincoln Zotarelli, Tatiana Borisova, Rebecca Darnell and Kati Migliaccio

, primarily due to this system’s low cost of operation and the ease of management ( Locascio, 2005 ). The utilization of plasticulture for cabbage production is a possible alternative to the traditional bare ground with seepage irrigation, potentially allowing

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Jonathan M. Frantz

different CO 2 supplementation systems ( Blom et al., 2009 ). Sustainable production practices have increased in recent years in greenhouse systems ( Dennis et al., 2010 ), but it is unknown how the use of supplemental CO 2 fits within the framework of

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J.L. Adrian, C.C. Montgomery, B.K. Behe, K.M. Tilt and P.A. Duffy

In-field (IF) and above-ground (AG) container production of landscape ornamentals are both conventional methods which were compared to a newer production method, pot-in-pot (PIP). Our objective was to determine costs and economic feasibility for each method. Model nurseries were synthesized to represent a 4-ha nursery utilizing 2 ha of production area operating over a three-year period. Finished plant material were grown in 40-L containers for above-ground and pot-in-pot production, and 2 m ball and burlapped material for in-field production. One budget was constructed to reflect costs for Lagerstroemia indica, Cornusflorida, and × Cupressocyparis leylandii under each production method. Capital requirements and annual fixed costs for all three species were lowest for IF and highest for PIP production. Variable costs for all tree species were lowest for IF and highest for AG with PIP intermediate. With better utilization of a given production area, PIP had the lowest total cost of production, followed by AG and IF methods.