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-flavane-3-gallate], and procyanidin B2} in the pulp of four apple cultivars during fruit development. Materials and Methods All laboratory procedures took place at the Aomori Apple Institute Breeding Department Laboratory, Japan, with exception of the

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of phenylalanine and flavonoid biosynthesis were significantly enriched. In P vs. B, 12, 11, and 2 unigenes were annotated to the phenylalanine biosynthesis pathway, flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, and flavonoid flavonol biosynthetic pathway

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vitamin A, β-carotene, and lycopene levels. Table 1. Meteorological data for harvest dates of early-, middle-, and late-period apricot types and cultivar. Chemicals 3-B-Q-D, procyanidin B1, B2, B3, caffeic acid, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid

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). Commercial flavonoid standards of procyanidins (B1 and B2), catechin, epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, quercetin glycosides, and cyanidin glycosides were purchased from Chromadex (Irvine, CA). Neochlorogenic acid was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich. Five flavonoid

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related ( Fig. 2B ). Fig. 2. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) numbers and gene ontology (GO) functional classifications of banana peel samples of control fruit (CF1) and procyanidin-treated fruit (PF1) on day 1. ( A ) DEGs numbers between CF1 and PF1

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procyanidin B1 (PCB1), procyanidin B2 (PCB2), procyanidin B5 (PCB5), procyanidin C1 (PCC1), and cinnamtannin A2 (CA2) (Planta Analytica, Danbury, CT). These standards were chosen because of their known presence in apples as well as their importance in sensory

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, all procyanidins by the standard curve of procyanidin B2, all kaempferol compounds by kaempferol-3-glucoside, and quercetin (Q) compounds (except Q-rutinoside, Q-galactoside, Q-glucoside, Q-rhamnoside, Q-arabinofuranoside, and Q-xyloside) by quercetin

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polymers and oligomers of gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers. Hot acid treatment of procyanidins yields cyanidin (two hydroxy groups on the B carbon ring), whereas prodelphinidins yield delphinidin (with three hydroxy groups) ( Bule et al. 2020

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procyanidin B1 ( Table 2 ). The levels of these phenolics might affect the final cider quality as explained previously ( Khanizadeh et al., 2007 , 2008 ) and is worth further investigation along with their effect on disease susceptibility ( Ehsani

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, or 4 weeks (“_0”, “_2”, or “_4”) in 2016. Ellipses represent the 95% confidence level for each sample class; ellipses that overlap are not significantly different from one another ( P < 0.05). (B) Loading plot for discriminant analysis showing

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