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Benjamin L. Campbell and Charles R. Hall

their business practices and determining if there are ways to increase sales and profitability. Increased sales may often come as a result of subtle changes in pricing behavior and vice versa. For instance, an operator that uses last year's prices as an

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Osman Kilic, Vedat Ceyhan, H. Avni Cinemre, Mehmet Bozoglu, and John Sumelius

export value of hazelnut. Price support policy for hazelnuts and high prices on the free market in some years, together with the contribution of yield from more hazelnut plantations, has accelerated hazelnut production. Because export and internal

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Mahrizal, L. Lanier Nalley, Bruce L. Dixon, and Jennie Popp

microfinance ( Agbeniyi et al., 2010 ). For producers who cannot afford inorganic inputs and who currently grow organic cocoa, there is a large amount of risk (both in price and in yield) involved with an estimated 30% lower yield compared with conventional

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Shannon C. Mason, Terri W. Starman, R.D. Lineberger, and Bridget K. Behe

study was developed to determine consumer preferences for price, color harmony, and amount of care information provided with the purchase of container gardens using a Web-based survey. This research was also conducted to determine characteristics of

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Jennifer Drew, Chengyan Yue, Neil O. Anderson, and Philip G. Pardey

form of planned obsolescence. Studies of price effects of PVP show IP for plants to have slight ( Alston and Venner, 2002 ; Hansen and Knudson, 1996 ; Lesser, 1994 ) to substantial effects ( Butler and Marion, 1985 ) with price gains diminished by

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Jayson K. Harper and George M. Greene II

This study quantifies the discounts and premiums associated with various quality factors for processing apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). Discounts and premiums were estimated using a hedonic price model and quality data from a total of 137 samples representing three processing apple cultivars (45 `York Imperial', 43 `Rome Beauty', and 49 `Golden Delicious'). Price discounts in the sample were statistically significant for fruit size, bruising, bitter pit, decay, misshapen apples, and internal breakdown. Commonly cited defects, such as insect damage and apple scab, did not cause significant price discounts.

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Bridget Behe, Robert Nelson, Susan Barton, Charles Hall, Charles D. Safley, and Steven Turner

Researchers often investigate consumer preferences by examining variables consecutively, rather than simultaneously. Conjoint analysis facilitates simultaneous investigation of multiple variables. Cluster analysis facilitates development of actionable market segments. Our objective was to identify relative importance and consumer preferences for flower color, leaf variegation, and price of geraniums (Pelargonium ×hortorum L.H. Bail.) and to identify several actionable market segments. We also evaluated the desirability of a hypothetical blue geranium. Photographic images were digitized and manipulated to produce plants similar in flower area, but varying in flower color (red, lavender, pink, white, and blue), leaf variegation (plain green, dark green zone, and white zone), and price ($1.39 to $2.79). Conjoint analysis revealed that flower color was the primary consideration in the purchase decision, followed by leaf variegation and price. A cluster analysis that excluded blue geraniums yielded four actionable consumer segments. When preferences for the blue geranium were included, six consumer segments were identified.

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Amy H. Simonne, Bridget K. Behe, and Maurice M. Marshall

Fresh and processed tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) consumption has increased 40% in the United States over the last two decades. Through better breeding, fresh tomatoes now are marketed in different forms, sizes, colors, and flavors. However, little published information exists concerning consumer demand, preference, and demographic characteristics related to fresh tomato consumption. Taking advantage of a high percentage of Internet use in the U.S., two web-based surveys were released to approximately 6000 e-mail addresses reaching people in every region of the U.S. The surveys contained a total of 61 questions, including 50 digital images of five types of tomatoes (cherry, grape, cluster, plum, and regular slicing) with combinations of three additional factors (price, lycopene content, and production style) and demographic information. Among 389 respondents, 76% preferred and purchased slicing tomatoes in the 4 weeks prior to the survey. These were followed by grape/mini-pear (42%), plum (36%), cluster (27%), cherry (25%), and yellow slicing tomatoes (4.4%). Overall, production method (organic vs. conventional) had low relative importance in comparison to price and tomato type. However, younger participants (<age 38 years) placed more importance on production method. Participants between ages 39 and 57 years were the most price-sensitive, and female were less sensitive than males. Younger participants (<age 38 years) were less price-sensitive and placed more importance on the other attributes (production method, lycopene content, and tomato type).

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Kathleen M. Kelley, Bridget K. Behe, John A. Biernbaum, and Kenneth L. Poff

Two surveys were conducted to determine characteristics important in containerized edible flowers that could be sold in retail outlets. Self-selected participants at Bloomfest at Cobo Hall, Detroit, were assigned to one group that rated the importance of attributes such as color of pansy (Viola ×wittrockiana Gams. `Accord Banner Clear Mixture'), color combinations, container size, and price. Participants assigned to a second group rated color, color combinations, and container size. Flower color was allocated the most points in the purchasing decision (63% for the first group and 95% for the second), with a mixture of all three colors (blue, yellow, and orange) being the most desirable. Responses were subjected to Cluster Analysis (SPSS Inc., Chicago), which resulted in the formation of three distinct groups. The groups were labeled “Likely Buyer” (those who had eaten and purchased edible flowers before and rated characteristics of edible flowers favorably); “Unlikely Consumer” (those who had eaten edible flowers before and had rated characteristics of edible flowers unfavorably); and “Persuadable Garnishers” (those who had not eaten edible flowers before, but were very likely to purchase edible flowers for a meal's garnish).

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Michael K. Wohlgenant, Charles D. Safley, and Anthony N. Rezitis

Data from a survey of North Carolina independent garden center customers in Fall 1996 were used to determine the price responsiveness of mums and pansies. A survey was conducted of four garden centers in the Raleigh, N.C., area and four garden centers operating in the Triad marketing area (Greensboro, Winston-Salem, and High Point, N.C.). Information collected on 1608 consumers included various socioeconomic and demographic variables (age, value of residence, type of residence, number of years in the residence, housing tenure, and employment status) as well as plant purchase information (plant price, plant types, and plant sizes). Price responsiveness of consumers was estimated by analyzing how customers' responses change as prices varied from one store to another and from one location to another. Measures of price responsiveness indicated statistically significant price elasticities of demand of -0.76 for mums and -0.80 for pansies. These elasticities can be used to indicate how industry sales would respond to a change to the industry that affects all firms in the same way—such as the response to an increase in energy costs. The paper shows how to use the elasticities to develop particular pricing strategies under different circumstances facing firms in the industry.