; Halevy and Mayak, 1981 ). However, a holding preservative is intended to be used for extended periods of time, 24 h or longer, typically during transport and storage. They regularly contain a carbohydrate source, an antimicrobial agent, and an acidifying
Erin M.R. Clark, John M. Dole, Alicain S. Carlson, Erin P. Moody, Ingram F. McCall, Frankie L. Fanelli, and William C. Fonteno
Morgan M. Jenkins, Kimberly A. Williams, and Laura A. Brannon
Floral preservatives are a mixture of ingredients added to the water of a fresh floral arrangement to increase the postharvest longevity of cut flowers and greens ( Nowak and Rudnicki, 1990 ). Commercial floral preservatives contain a combination of
Lingfang Kong, Fan Li, Ronghui Du, Huaiting Geng, Shifeng Li, and Jihua Wang
. Preservatives comprise commonly used chemicals to delay flower senescence and retain the ornamental value because of their low cost, ease of use, and obvious fresh-keeping effects ( Gómez-Merino et al., 2020 ; Rabiza-Świder et al., 2019 ; Shabanian et al
Iftikhar Ahmad and John M. Dole
Floral preservatives are widely recommended for cut stems and are extensively used in floral arrangements by wholesalers, retailers, and consumers for extending longevity and maintaining quality ( Ahmad et al., 2013b ; Çelikel and Reid, 2002
Alicain S. Carlson and John M. Dole
, including ethylene, storage temperatures, sucrose pulses, and commercial preservatives. Ethylene exposure can have deleterious effects on cut flowers. Selected species of beardtongue are sensitive to ethylene, including foxglove beardtongue ( P. digitalis
Iftikhar Ahmad, John M. Dole, and Bruno T. Favero
). Gibberellin controlled leaf chlorosis more effectively than just benzyladenine ( van Doorn and Han, 2011 ). Among commercial floral preservative products, a proprietary mixture of GA 4+7 plus BA in a commercial floral preservative (Chrysal BVB; Chrysal, Miami
Albert H. Markhart III and Mark S. Harper
Leaves on cut stems of commercially grown Rosa hybrida cv. Kardinal placed in preservative solutions containing sucrose developed necrotic dry patches that began interveinally and progressed toward the major veins until the entire leaf was dehydrated. Ultrastructural observations of initial damage showed disorganized protoplasm and plasmolyzed cells. Leaves on cut stems pretreated with abscisic acid for 24 hours and transferred to preservative solution containing sucrose remained healthy. We propose that sucrose accumulates in the mesophyll cell wall, thus decreasing apoplastic osmotic potential, leading to cell collapse and tissue death.
Mary W. George and Robert R. Tripepi
Plant Preservative Mixture™ (PPM), a relatively new, broad-spectrum preservative and biocide for use in plant tissue culture, was evaluated as an alternative to the use of conventional antibiotics and fungicides in plant tissue culture. Concentrations of 0.5 to 4.0 mL·L-1 were tested with leaf explants of chrysanthemum (Dendranthem×grandiflora Kitam), European birch (Betula pendula Roth), and rhododendron (Rhododendron catawbiense Michx.). PPM had little effect on the percentage of explants forming shoots and the number of shoots formed per explant in birch and rhododendron, but dramatically reduced both responses in chrysanthemum. Therefore, the effects of PPM must be evaluated for each species of interest prior to use.
Michelle L. Jones, Kenneth K. Cochran, Gary A. Anderson, and David C. Ferree
Deciduous holly branches were visually rated over a period of 5 weeks to evaluate differences in display life between various cultivars of winterberry (Ilex verticillata) and japanese winterberry (I. serrata) x winterberry. Holly branches were naturally defoliated and the postharvest performance of the cut branches was therefore based on the quality and longevity of the fruit. Chemical treatments including floral preservative, floral preservative plus silver, and anti-transpirant were also evaluated. `Bonfire' and `Sunset' had the highest ratings for marketability based on the longevity and quality of their fruit. `Bonfire' and `Winter Red' had the highest fruit density per stem. Treatment with floral preservatives significantly increased the display life of holly branches. Preservative plus silver delayed deterioration later in the study, presumably by delaying the senescence of the fruit. Anti-transpirant treatment did not decrease solution uptake by the holly stems. Cold storage of dry branches at 0.00 ± 1.11 °C (32.0 ± 2.0 °F) did not significantly reduce branch display life if held for 23 days or less. Cut branches of all cultivars had a longer display life when stuck in sand and left outdoors in a lath house than when rated in vase solutions indoors. This study indicates that deciduous holly branches provide an attractive alternative cut branch for both interior and outdoor holiday displays.
Young A. Kim and Jong Suk Lee
To investigate the differences of anatomical structure of neck tissue between bent-neck and strong-neck flowers, scanning electron microscopy of neck tissue during senescence of cut rose flowers held in deionized water or preservative solution (3% sucrose + 200 ppm HQS + 0.1 mM ethionine) was observed. Lignins in xylem, phloem, and interfascicular cambium of neck were stained to red by phloroglucine. More lignin was formed in the phloem of neck in rose flowers held in preservative solution than deionized water. Neck strength of cut rose could be increased by increase of lignin content, and this would prevent bent-neck and extend vase life. Parenchyma cells in neck part of rose flowers held in deionized water had thinner cell wall and less starch grains at senescence than those of flowers held in preservative solution at day 7. These starch grains would be used as energy source of rose flowers and extend vase life. Globular crystals were observed in the inner part of cells and had shape of large thorny. These crystals were cumulated in cell walls, then would prevent the activity of cell wall decomposition or increase cell wall permeability.