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Annina Delaune* and Jeff Kuehny

The genus Clerodendrum is of interest to the floriculture industry as a woody, flowering pot plant because of its variation in type of foliage and flowers, production of many inflorescences on one plant, continuous bloom, fast growing and short production cycle. Plant height, however, needs to be successfully controlled to produce a marketable plant. Paclobutrazol (Bonzi) and ancymidol (A-Rest) have been shown to reduce plant growth and increase the number of flowers of C. thomsoniae. The remaining species are relatively new to the floriculture industry and very little information is available on use of growth retardants. Determination of the proper timing, number of applications and rates of growth retardants were studied. Paclobutrazol and ancymidol were applied either as a spray at 0, 100 or 200 ppm, or as a drench at 0, 0.5 or 1.0 a.i./pot to C. thomsoniae, C. ugandense, and C. bungii. Applications began three weeks after rooted cuttings were potted for three consecutive weeks, with randomized plants treated either in week one, two or three with all treatment rates. As in previous studies, C. thomsoniae responded to paclobutrazol and ancymidol by producing a marketable plant, while plant height of C. ugandense and C. bungii was not affected by treatments.

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Amir Rezazadeh, Richard L. Harkess and Guihong Bi

potential for introduction as a flowering potted plant because of its attractive red spikes of flowers and shiny green leaves. However, without height control, firespike grows too tall, exceeding the commercial requirements for potted plants. Thus, control

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Terril A. Nell, Ria T. Leonard, Jim E. Barrett and David G. Clark

Production and postproduction factors were examined to evaluate effects on postproduction performance and longevity of several varieties of potted African violets, carnations, chrysanthemum, cyclamen, gerbera, Hiemalis begonia, hibiscus, hydrangea, kalanchoe, and lisianthus. Various N rates (150–600 ppm) and fertilizer termination 2 to 3 weeks prior to flowering were evaluated. Chrysanthemums, hydrangea, and lisianthus had better quality and longevity at N rates ranging from 200 to 300 ppm, while all other crops performed best at 150 ppm N. Terminating fertilizer had no effect on longevity or quality of carnation, gerbera, Hiemalis begonia, hydrangea, or kalanchoe, while chrysanthemum and cyclamen had a significant increase in longevity when terminated. Lisianthus had an increase in quality and longevity when fertilizer was continued to the end of production. Shipping at the proper bud developmental stage significantly influenced flower opening and longevity in the postharvest environment. Lisianthus and hydrangea need to have at least 75% of the buds fully opened, while carnations, chrysanthemum, cyclamen, and kalanchoe need at least 25% to 50% open. Hiemalis begonia, a very long-lasting potted plant, tolerated a range of 10% to 75% open flowers at shipping. Optimum transport temperature and transport duration varied for each crop. Generally, transporting for 3 days at 2 to 7 °C was best for carnation, chrysanthemum, and gerbera, while transporting at 7 to 12 °C was best for cyclamen, Hiemalis begonia, hydrangea, kalanchoe, and lisianthus. Hibiscus performed best when transported at 18 °C. Longevity and quality were maximized when maintained at 18 to 21 °C at 14 μmol·m–2·s–1. Differences in variety performance was a major factor in postproduction performance.

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Bridget K. Behe, Elizabeth H. Moore, Arthur Cameron and Forrest S. Carter

The U.S. wholesale market for flowering potted plants, valued at $701 million in 2000, is growing much slower than the $2.1 billion bedding plant market, indicating the product life-cycle of the former may have matured. A mature product yields little profit. Customers who purchase flowering potted plants for indoor enjoyment may have expectations about them, including that plant life is finite and there is no opportunity for outdoor use. Because scientists have discovered how to force selected perennials to flower, marketers may reposition them as indoor flowering potted plants, creating a new product and potentially stimulating sales of this lagging floral category. One method for relating customer perceptions of new products to familiar ones is perceptual mapping, which shows how consumers implicitly categorize products. Defining how consumers perceive the relationships between the selected flowering plants enables marketers to select the best opportunities for product positioning, merchandising, and pricing. We surveyed 200 self-selected visitors at a Michigan flower show in Apr. 2000 to determine their uses for, preferences for, and perceptions of three traditional indoor flowering potted plants and six traditional outdoor perennials. Perceptions were recorded on a seven-point scale. Squared Euclidean distances were calculated to derive the map in which two major dimensions emerged: use (indoor/outdoor) and flower color. Campanula carpatica Jacq. `Blue Clips' and Oxalis crassipes Urb. were mapped centrally, indicating participants had no strong perceptions for how these plants should be used. This suggests that Campanula and Oxalis have the greatest potential to be positioned for dual indoor and outdoor enjoyment, which may also yield some enhanced profitability.

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Kathleen M. Kelley, Bridget K. Behe and Elizabeth H. Moore

their assistance and plant donations for this experiment.

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A.A. De Hertogh and L.B. Gallitano

planting media. We also thank W. Swallow and K. Kalmowitz for their assistance with the statistical analyses. The use of trade names in this publication does not imply endorsement by the North Carolina Agricultural Research Service or criticism of similar

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Terril A. Nell, James E. Barrett and Ria T. Leonard

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John A. Biernbaum, William Argo and Janet Pumford

161 WORKSHOP 27 Use of Plant Sap Tests for Determining Nutrient Status of Horticultural Crops

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Margrethe Serek, Edward C. Sisler and Michael S. Reid

for advice on data analysis and Nurserymen's Exchange, Half Moon Bay, and Golden State, Watsonville, Calif., for kindly supplying the plants. The experiments were supported by a grant from the Danish Agricultural and Veterinary Research Council (grant