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Rick A. Boydston, Harold P. Collins, and Steven F. Vaughn

methanol extraction. Materials and Methods DDGS were obtained from a commercial ethanol plant near West Burlington, IA (Big River Resources, LLC). Commercial potting mix consisting of 40% pine bark, 40% peatmoss, and 20% pumice (by volume) was

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Mary Jane Clark and Youbin Zheng

. Relative to plant requirements, a suitable combination of physical and chemical properties of the potting mix is needed to ensure satisfactory plant performance ( Clark and Zheng, 2015 ; Raviv et al., 2004 ). Species-specific growing substrates are

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Carlos Efraín Reyes-González, José Pablo Torres-Morán, Blanca Catalina Ramírez-Hernández, Liberato Portillo, Enrique Pimienta-Barrios, and Martha Isabel Torres-Morán

soilless and without irrigation system ( Fig. 2 ). The second treatment consisted of same number of plants of each species grown in 4-inch-diameter plastic POT with 800 cm 3 volume with a substrate mix of 70% v/v peatmoss and 30% fine pumice. No

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Nauja Lisa Jensen, Christian R. Jensen, Fulai Liu, and Karen K. Petersen

Experimental set-up. Fragaria × ananassa ‘Honeoye’ plantlets (strawberry frigo plants/A+) were planted in pots 15 cm in diameter and 25 cm deep on 27 Apr. 2007. The PRD pots were divided into two compartments by a plastic wall in the middle of the pot and

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Amir Rezazadeh and Richard L. Harkess

–10–20; Scotts, Marysville, OH). One, two, or three cuttings were planted per pot. Pinching treatments included a nonpinched control, one pinch, or two pinches. The first pinch was applied after 14 d growth when plants averaged 6 cm tall and had an established

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José Antonio Saraiva Grossi, H. Brent Pemberton, and Harvey J. Lang

and thank CAPES (Federal Agency for Post-Graduate Education, Ministry of Education, Brazil) for providing the student scholarship for J. Grossi and Yoder Brothers, Barberton, Ohio, for supplying pot rose plants.

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Pascal Braekman, Dieter Foqué, Marie-Christine Van Labeke, Jan G. Pieters, and David Nuyttens

effect of spray application technique on the spray deposition in ivy pot plants grown on hanging shelves in greenhouses. In particular, the effect of application rate, nozzle type, size and spray pressure, and the difference between the traditional spray

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Marco Volterrani, Nicola Grossi, Monica Gaetani, Lisa Caturegli, Aimila-Eleni Nikolopoulou, Filippo Lulli, and Simone Magni

mix (Humin Substrat N17, pH 6.0, EC 0.40 dS·m −1 ; Klasmann-Deilmann, Geestee, Germany) was used as a growing medium. Before initiating the study, plants were allowed to establish for 3 weeks. During establishment, pots were kept in the greenhouse and

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Jeffrey H. Gillman, Chad P. Giblin, and Gary R. Johnson

Plants that have been grown in containers for a long period of time frequently develop roots that grow in circles, following the contour of the container in which they have been planted. This condition is commonly referred to as “pot-bound.” It is considered common knowledge that if a pot-bound plant is transplanted without any treatment, its roots will continue to follow the contour of the now-removed container. There are, however, a number of transplanting techniques that are intended to reorient the roots in a direction that will be conducive to helping roots to grow out of this potentially harmful situation. These techniques include: butterflying, or slicing the rootball into two halves before planting; scoring, or making inch-deep slices around the rootball at 90° increments and an X-shaped slice across the bottom; or teasing, where roots are manually pulled out of the shape of the container in a direction perpendicular to the stem. Severely pot bound Salixalba and Tiliacordata were treated with one of the three treatments previously listed or as a control and were transplanted into an experimental field and grown for two full seasons. After two seasons, the trees were harvested and the number and size of roots escaping from the pot-bound region were recorded. None of the treatments allowed roots of any size to escape the pot-bound mass more effectively than the control.

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Amanda Wiberg, Richard Koenig, and Teresa Cerny-Koenig

There is extensive variability in physical and chemical properties among brands of retail potting media. The purpose of this study was to assess variability in seed germination and plant growth responses among and within brands. Twenty-four different brands of media, and multiple bags of five brands, were purchased at nine retail stores. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) seeds were germinated in 11 different brands of media and in media from different bags of four of the same brands. Marigold (Tagetes erecta) and petunia (Petunia×hybrida) were grown to flowering in 10 brands of media. Germination varied significantly among media brands and among bags of one of the brands. Plant performance also varied significantly, with several of the brands producing plants with few flowers, long times to flowering, and low shoot and root dry weights even though all treatments received uniform applications of a complete fertilizer solution three times per week. Few relationships could be discerned between individual physical and chemical properties of the media and plant performance. Results indicate improvements in quality among brands and quality control within brands are needed in the retail potting media industry. Quality assessment tools emphasizing plant performance could improve overall media quality.