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Touria E. Eaton, Douglas A. Cox, and Allen V. Barker

to determine EC and pH as described later in this section. Expt. 2: Marigold. Purchased 3-week-old plug seedlings of conventional marigold were transplanted into round, plastic pots (15 cm o.d., 11 cm height), one plant/pot, on 15 Jan. 2011. Pots were

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Iftikhar Ahmad, Brian E. Whipker, and John M. Dole

, or loss of flower quality of potted zinnia ( Chen et al., 1993 ; Kim et al., 1992 ; Pinto et al., 2005 ), marigold ( Chen et al., 1993 ), oleander ( Nerium oleander L.) ( Bañón et al., 2001 ; Singh et al., 2004 ), Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep

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W. Garrett Owen, Brian E. Jackson, Brian E. Whipker, and William C. Fonteno

quadratic relationship was also found between marigold height and paclobutrazol rate ( Fig. 2B ). Plant height was 5%, 15%, and 13% shorter than the untreated control for 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 mg/pot rates, respectively. No further height control occurred when

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Tasneem M. Vaid, Erik S. Runkle, and Jonathan M. Frantz

impatiens ( Impatiens hawkeri ‘Divine Cherry Red’), osteospermum ( Osteospermum ecklonis ‘Asti Purple’), pot marigold ( Calendula officinalis ‘Bon Bon Orange’), snapdragon ( Antirrhinum majus ‘Liberty Classic Cherry’), stock ( Matthiola incana ‘Hot

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Samantha R. Nobes, Karen L. Panter, and Randa Jabbour

in this study included ‘Princess Golden’ pot marigold ( Calendula officinalis ), ‘Lucinda Mix’ stock ( Matthiola incana ), ‘Double Mix’ strawflower ( Helichrysum bracteatum ), ‘Dara’ ornamental carrot ( Daucus carota ), and ‘Celway Mix’ cockscomb

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Toshiki Asao, Hiroaki Kitazawa, Kazuyori Ushio, Yukio Sueda, Takuya Ban, and M. Habibur Rahman Pramanik

≈49%. It appears that lily, prairie gentian, corn poppy, pot marigold, toritelia, and farewell-to-spring were the most sensitive to autotoxicity. Autotoxicity in plants from their own exuded chemicals is also observed in natural ecosystems ( Rice, 1984

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Timothy K. Broschat and Kimberly A. Klock-Moore

Areca palms [Dypsis lutescens (H. Wendl.) Beentje & J. Dransf.], spathiphyllums (Spathiphyllum Schott. `Figaro'), ixoras (Ixora L. `Nora Grant'), tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `Floramerica'), marigolds (Tagetes erecta L. `Inca Gold'), bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L. `Better Bell'), and pentas [Pentas lanceolata (Forssk.) Deflers. `Cranberry'] were grown in a pine bark-based potting substrate and were fertilized weekly with 0, 8, 16, 32, or 64 mg (1.0 oz = 28,350 mg) of P per pot. Shoot, and to a much lesser extent, root dry weight, increased for all species as weekly P fertilization rate was increased from 0 to 8 mg/pot. As P fertilization was increased from 8 to 64 mg/pot, neither roots nor shoots of most species showed any additional growth in response to increased P. Root to shoot ratio decreased sharply as P fertilization rate was increased from 0 to 8 mg/pot, but remained relatively constant in response to further increases in P fertilization rate.

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Tim D. Davis

Plugs of Zinnia elegans Jacq. `California Giant' and Tagetes erecta L. `Golden Climax' and `Grange Lady' were treated with foliar sprays of uniconazole solutions at 0, 5, 25, or 50 mg·liter-1 (spray volume = 120 ml·m-2). Ten days later individual plants were transplanted to OS-liter pots for evaluation of subsequent growth and flowering. All uniconazole treatments reduced height 10 days after application; the extent of reduction depended on uniconazole spray concentration. With zinnia, only the 50-mg·liter-1 foliar spray caused undesirable stunting for at least 1 month after transplanting. None of the uniconazole treatments affected time to anthesis for zinnia. With both marigold cultivars, all uniconazole treatments reduced growth the 2 weeks following transplanting. The highest concentration reduced marigold shoot growth during this period to 25% to 30% of untreated controls. Between 2 and 4 weeks after transplanting growth of all uniconazole-treated marigolds recovered to levels similar to the control. Time to anthesis was increased by the 50 mg·liter-1 treatment for both marigold cultivars. These results suggest that foliar sprays of uniconazole at 5 to 25 mg·liter-1 can control plug height during production without adversely affecting subsequent growth and flowering. with both zinnia and marigold, a single GA3 foliar spray of 100 mg·liter-1 at transplanting partially reversed the adverse post-production effects of the 50 mg·liter-1 uniconazole foliar spray.

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Theodore W. Tibbitts and Uzoamaka B. Mokwunye

The cotyledons of marigold, Tagetes erecta L., developed epinasty when reflective surfaces were maintained under the seedlings. Plain aluminum foil or white-painted foil induced up to 360° curvature as the cotyledons extended, whereas no epinasty occurred over the exposed surface of potting mix or black-painted foil. A gray-painted foil induced intermediate epinasty. Dry-weight accumulation of the seedlings was not significantly affected by the epinasty.

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Olivia Riffo and Monica Ozores-Hampton

The nursery industry in Florida relies entirely on peat as a major component in potting soil. Escalating peat costs are a major concern, so alternative media are attractive in Florida. The objectives of the project were to study the feasibility of using food waste compost (FWC) to replace peat in different annual ornamental crops. The experiments were conducted in Spring 2004 at the University of Florida/SWFREC Immokalee, Fla. The crops basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), marigold (Calendulaofficinalis L.), and periwinkle (Vincarosea L.) were grown in mixes of FWC. The treatments were: 1) 100% FWC; 2) 60% FWC, 25% vermiculite, 15% perlite; 3) 30% FWC, 30% peat, 25% vermiculite, 15% perlite; and 4) 0% FWC, 60% peat, 25% vermiculite, 15% perlite, by volume. Basil `U.H' was direct seeded; marigold and periwinkle were transplanted (5 cm tall) in pots (2 inches). All treatments received 4 g per pot of Osmocote (19-6-12) for 4 months. Percentage of basil germination and biomass were higher in mixes with 60% and 30% FWC as compared with 100% FWC and the control. Lower basil biomass in the control media was due to high weed biomass grown in the peat control media. There were no differences in biomass and number of flowers per plant among marigold treatments. But, periwinkle dry biomass and number of flowers per plant were higher in the control and 30% FWC than in 60% and 100% FWC, indicating a negative effect of FWC in periwinkle. It can be concluded that FWC may become a viable alternative to replace peat in basil and marigold when included in potting mixes between 30% and 60% by volume, but a negative effect was reported in periwinkle production.