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Ed Etxeberria, William M. Miller, and Diann Achor

Fruit etching is an alterative means to label produce. Laser beam-generated pinhole depressions form dot-matrix alphanumerical characters that etch in the required price-look-up information. Pinhole depressions can disrupt the cuticular and epidermal barriers, potentially weakening the natural protection against pathogens. In the present study we describe the anatomical and morphological characteristics of the pinhole depressions in the cuticle/epidermis, and the changes taking place during storage of two fruits: avocado (Persea americana) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). These fruits represent the extremes from a thick, non-edible peel to a thin edible peel. On both tomato and avocado, etching depressions were fairly similar in diameter and depth, averaging 200 μm and 25 μm, respectively, for energy impact durations of 30 μs for tomato and 45 μs for avocado. Immediately after etching, the two- to five-cell-deep depressions contained cuticle/wax deposits. Additional cuticle/wax material was deposited in and around the depressions during storage as demonstrated by confocal, fl uorescent, and light microscopy. In addition, the cells underlining the etch depression increased phenolic and lignin deposits in their walls, creating a potential barrier against pathogenic organisms.

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Xue Li, Chen Zang, Hang Ge, Jing Zhang, Donald Grierson, Xue-ren Yin, and Kun-song Chen

Texture is an important quality trait for fruit ( Li et al., 2010 ). Postharvest softening usually occurs in most fruit, but lignification is an uncommon phenomenon occurring in ripening fruit, which is usually accompanied by increased fruit

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Xiang Wang, Ramón A. Arancibia, Jeffrey L. Main, Mark W. Shankle, and Don R. LaBonte

and the Gulf South ( Boudreaux, 2012 ; Meyers et al., 2013 ) but is prone to skinning (surface abrasion) during harvest and postharvest handling. Skinned areas become susceptible to pathogen infections and moisture loss, which results in an

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Leli Li, Shutian Tao, Huangwei Zhang, Weijian Huang, Jim M. Dunwell, and Meng Li

.C. Vilaplana, R. Torres, R. Usall, J. Larrigaudière, C. 2005 Specific roles of enzymatic browning and lignification in apple disease resistance Postharvest Biol. Technol. 36 227 234 doi: 10.1016/j.postharvbio.2005.01.002 Vanholme, R. Demedts

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Manasikan Thammawong, Daisuke Nei, Poritosh Roy, Nobutaka Nakamura, Takeo Shiina, Yuuichi Inoue, Hidenobu Hamachi, and Shigeyuki Nonaka

respiration of the cell. Postharvest deterioration and changing in cellular components, including discoloration, browning, lignification, and increased PAL activity, were also observed in bamboo shoots stored at relatively high temperature ( Chen et al., 1989

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Donald J. Huber

fruit Postharvest Biol. Technol. 40 155 162 Cai, C. Xu, C. Li, X. Ferguson, I. Chen, K. 2006b Accumulation of lignin in relation to change in activities of lignification enzymes in loquat

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Zhengke Zhang, Runshan Fu, Donald J. Huber, Jingping Rao, Xiaoxiao Chang, Meijiao Hu, Yu Zhang, and Nina Jiang

Expression of expansin genes during postharvest lignification and softening of ‘Luoyangqing’ and ‘Baisha’ loquat fruit under different storage conditions Postharvest Biol. Technol. 49 46 53 Yang, S.L. Xu, C.J. Zhang, B. Li, X. Chen, K.S. 2007 Involvement of

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Juan Pablo Fernández-Trujillo, Gene E. Lester, Noelia Dos-Santos, Juan Antonio Martínez, Juan Esteva, John L. Jifon, and Plácido Varó

) Accession ‘Rochet’ B15 with signs of lignification. (K) ‘Vedrantais’ with cracking. Some melon NILs containing two introgression of SC into LG III and VI such as SC3–5 ( Fernández-Trujillo et al., 2008 ; Moreno et al., 2008 ; Vegas et al., 2013) have been

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Derek W. Barchenger, Danise L. Coon, and Paul W. Bosland

was observed that after day 8 of treatment, the abscission zone was darkened ( Fig. 3 ); illustrating what is likely cell suberization or lignification as the result of flower bud, flower, and fruit drop. Suberization or lignification is a major part

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Thanidchaya Puthmee, Kenji Takahashi, Midori Sugawara, Rieko Kawamata, Yoshie Motomura, Takashi Nishizawa, Toshiyuki Aikawa, and Wilawan Kumpoun

polymers and work as a barrier to moisture loss ( Schreiber, 2010 ). Optical microscope observations of vertical sections revealed that lignification of the phellem tissue occurred mainly after stage III, regardless of cultivar ( Fig. 5 ). This was also