should not influence the disorder incidence. Increases in external CO 2 injury resulting from postharvest 1-MCP treatment have been reported previously for ‘McIntosh’ and ‘Empire’ apples ( DeEll et al., 2003 ; Fawbush et al., 2008 ). However, this
Jennifer DeEll and Behrouz Ehsani-Moghaddam
Juan Pablo Fernández-Trujillo, Javier Obando, Juan Antonio Martínez, Antonio Luis Alarcón, Iban Eduardo, Pere Arús, and Antonio José Monforte
members of the family can be affected by several fruit disorders that negatively affect postharvest fruit quality and harm fruit shelf life ( Blancard et al., 1995 ; Snowdon, 1991 ). The accessions with a good shelf life are mostly found within C . melo
Bradley J. Rickard, David R. Rudell, and Christopher B. Watkins
innovations that are both revenue-enhancing and cost-reducing. The empirical example that motivates our work is the use of biomarkers to manage postharvest physiological disorders in long-term controlled atmosphere (CA) apple storage. Such disorders are
Jinwook Lee, In-Kyu Kang, Jacqueline F. Nock, and Christopher B. Watkins
coefficient ( r ) matrix for fruit quality attributes and the incidence of physiological disorders with preharvest and postharvest 1-MCP treatments in combination or alone in ‘Fuji’ apples for up to 4 weeks at 20 °C. IEC, internal ethylene concentration; TA
Meng Li, Huanhuan Zhi, and Yu Dong
storage. In addition, GB applied preharvest showed inhibition of decay that was similar to that for postharvest application. These results indicated that GB applied preharvest was more beneficial for reducing fruit susceptibility to storage disorders than
John Navazio and Jack E. Staub
A fruit anomaly, pillowy (P), has been identified in processing cucumber This physiological disorder has been shown to be accelerated by water stress.
A series of experiments were conducted to determine postharvest handling procedures which minimize the appearance of pillowy after induction by water stress. Isogenic lines evaluated in RCB design with 3 replications where subjected to water stress during fruit enlargement. Fruits were then subjected to various storage temperatures and times before hydrocooling to 8°C. Cucumbers were then fresh pack processed and evaluated for % pillowy after 12 weeks,
The postharvest control treatmcnt (2 days, 26°C, 60% RH) produced 32%P to 51%P in fruit subjected to stress and 23%P to 39%P in unstressed fruit. In the optimal postharvest treatment (1 day, 26°C, 60% RH, then hydrocool to 8°C, 2 days, 15°C, 85% RH) fruits from stress plants exhibited 23%P to 39%P and those from nonstress plants showed 13%P to 26%P. Fruits from miniature leaf lines exhibited higher percent (37%) P ratings when compared to normal leaf lines.
Bernard Bible and Richard McAvoy
Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzch) bracts are susceptible to postharvest disorders like the pathogen Botrytis cinerea and the abiotic disorder bract necrosis that degrade plant appearance. `Freedom Red' and `Supjibi' poinsettias were grown hydroponically with Ca concentrations of 0.5 or 4 mm. Forty days after initial anthesis, plants were harvested and their bracts subdivided into true-bracts and transitional-bracts for determination of incidence of botrytis lesions and bract necrosis. Mineral nutrients in bract margins were determined only for true-bracts. Margin Ca concentrations were relatively high in true bracts only for `Supjibi' plants exposed to 4 mm Ca solutions. Botrytis incidence was increased for transitional-bracts but not true-bracts for both cultivars by plant exposure to low (0.5 mm) Ca solutions compared to control (4 mm Ca) plants. The smaller the poinsettia roots relative to shoots, the higher the incidence of botrytis for `Freedom Red' transitional-bracts and `Supjibi' true-bracts. Botrytis incidence was higher on transitional-bracts (13%) than on true-bracts (3.5%) for both cultivars exposed to low Ca, whereas the incidence of bract necrosis on `Supjibi' was the same on true-bracts and transitional-bracts in either Ca solution. Bract necrosis was not evident on `Freedom Red' plants in either the 0.5 or 4-mmmm Ca solutions, however for `Supjibi' exposure to low Ca solutions increased incidence of bract necrosis from 5.5% for controls to 19.3%. The effect of Ca stress applied to poinsettia roots was genotype dependant for bract necrosis but not for botrytis.
John P. Navazio and Jack E. Staub
Two experiments (1989 and 1990) were designed to characterize the response of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants with different leaf types [normal leaf (LL) vs. little leaf (ll)] to high soil moisture tension (SMT) and to determine whether hydrocooling would reduce the severity of pillowy fruit disorder (PFD). Comparisons were made among nine cultivars (7 LL and 2 ll) for aboveground vegetative and fruit response, and between two irrigation regimes. High SMT generally caused increased wilt ratings and stomatal conductance and decreased plant dry weight. PFD severity of fruit from watered plots was less [61% (Expt. 1, 1989) and 26% (Expt. 1, 1990)] than of fruit harvested from plots in which water was withheld. The response of the two ll cultivars to moisture stress differed depending on environmental conditions. Increased PFD severity was associated with increased temperature, lower relative humidity (RH), and excluding hydrocooling during postharvest handling. Of the four storage treatments examined, hydrocooling to ≈8.5C then storage at 15C and 85% RH for 4 days produced fruit with the least PFD symptoms. Fruit of `Carolina' (LL) exhibited the highest PFD ratings, while those of `Calypso' (LL) were consistently low compared to other cultivars. Processors can lower PFD incidence and severity by ensuring that adequate moisture is available to plants during fruit enlargement and that harvested fruit are hydrocooled before shipping and storage.
Shannon E. Beach* and Terri W. Starman
Vegetative annuals are increasing in popularity among greenhouse growers and consumers but little is known about their postharvest shelf life. Twenty-two cultivars from ten species of vegetative annuals were grown to marketability with optimum greenhouse culture. Plants were then subjected to one of three shipping durations (0, 1, or 2 days) in simulated shipping i.e., a growth chamber at 26.7 ± 0.3 °C, 0 μmol·m-2·s-1, and 50% relative humidity. The plants were then moved to simulated postharvest environment i.e., growth room at 21.1 ± 1.3 °C and 6 μmol·m-2·s-1 to evaluate shelf life. Flower number and plant quality rating were measured weekly in addition to observations of plant appearances. Some of the postharvest disorders noted on several species and cultivars were stem die back, leaf chlorosis, stem elongation, bud abortion, flower drop, and flower fading. The majority of the cultivars maintained their quality one-week postharvest although flower drop was common. After the first week of shelf life, decline in vegetative and reproductive tissues were noted in most plants. Cultivars from nine species: Argyranthemum frutescens (L.) Sch. Bip, Bracteantha bracteata (Vent.) Anderb. & Haegi, Calibrachoa hybrid Lave Lex, Diascia ×hybrida, Lantana camara L., Nemesia ×hybrida, Petunia ×hybrida, Sutera hybrida, and Sutera cordata showed decreased flower number and/or quality rating due to shipping duration, with increased shipping duration causing accelerated postharvest disorders. The only species unaffected by shipping duration was Angelonia angustifolia Benth.
Bernard Bible and Richard McAvoy
Incidences of poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzch) bract disorders like the pathogen Botrytis cinerea and the abiotic disorder bract necrosis are related to nutrient stress. `Supjibi' poinsettias were grown hydroponically with four Ca-B combinations of 0 or 4 mm Ca added with either 5 or 120 μmol B added. Forty-one days after initial anthesis, plants were harvested and their bracts subdivided into true-bracts and transitional-bracts for determination of incidence of botrytis lesions and bract necrosis. Mineral nutrients in bract margins were determined for leaves, transitional-bracts and true-bracts. Leaf margins had the highest concentrations of Ca and B. Margins of transitional-bracts had substantially lower concentrations and margins of true-bracts the least. The low Ca (0 mm) or low B (5 μmol) treatments greatly reduced the concentrations of these elements, respectively, in all three tissue types. The low Ca-low B treatment increased the incidence of bract necrosis on true-bracts from 1.9% on controls (4 mm Ca, 120 μmol B) to 27%. Low Ca treatment increased bract necrosis on transitional-bracts from 1.6% on controls to 24.3%. Bract necrosis incidence was the same on true-bracts and transitional-bracts, whereas the incidence of botrytis was higher on transitional-bracts than on true-bracts. Botrytis incidence was increased for true-bracts and transitional-bracts by plant exposure to low Ca solutions compared to plants in 4 mm Ca. Low Ca reduced growth in roots, but not shoots. Ca and B stress to roots increased the incidence of bract necrosis on true-bracts, while only Ca stress increased incidence of botrytis.