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David M. Czarnecki II and Zhanao Deng

( Czarnecki et al., 2008 ; Natarajan and Ahuja, 1957 ; Spies and Stirton, 1982 ). Several lines of evidence suggest that polyploidization may be associated with the species’ invasive behavior ( Sanders, 2001 ): Tetraploids are rare in the native populations

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Xuhong Zhou, Xijun Mo, Yalian Jiang, Hao Zhang, Rongpei Yu, Lihua Wang, Jihua Wang, and Suping Qu

, as have been described in a range of plants ( Bretagnolle and Thompson, 1995 ; Ramanna and Jacobsen, 2003 ). Unreduced gamete is now believed to be the major route for polyploidization through sexual reproduction. Polyploidy has played a key role in

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Rosanna Freyre, Adam Moseley, Sandra B. Wilson, and Gary W. Knox

of Florida/IFAS in Gainesville the first Ruellia breeding program using a combination of polyploidization and hybridization techniques. The objective of this research is directed specifically toward creating fruitless cultivars for the landscape

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Renwei Huang, Daofeng Liu, Min Zhao, Zhineng Li, Mingyang Li, and Shunzhao Sui

ecology and genetics of plants. Furthermore, artificial polyploidization is an effective method for the generation of innovative germplasm resources suitable for selective breeding ( Ye et al., 2010 ). Polyploid plants often possess superior agronomic

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Zhe Cao, Zhanao Deng, and Mike Mclaughlin

. picturatum ), which suggests a possible chromosome doubling or polyploidization in these CCG-3 species. However, when genome size and chromosome number were both considered, conflicts emerged as for how caladium genome size and chromosome number had evolved

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Rosanna Freyre, Zhanao Deng, Gary W. Knox, Steven Montalvo, and Victor Zayas

approved. Ruellia R12-2-1 described below was obtained by a combination of hybridization and polyploidization using oryzalin. It was selected in multilocation trials in Florida in 2015 from a group of 13 different clones and commercial cultivars due to

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Rosanna Freyre, Adam Moseley, Gary W. Knox, and Sandra B. Wilson

spread of R. simplex by seed, female sterility (and fruitlessness) or lack of seed viability is desired. The breeding lines of Ruellia described below were obtained by a combination of polyploidization using oryzalin and hybridization. They were

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Janice R. Bohac, Alfred Jones, and Daniel F. Austin

Previous work in this laboratory identified high levels of unreduced (2n) pollen in the tetraploid (4×) Ipomoea spp. Acc. 81.2. This work provided indirect evidence that 2n pollen was involved in the evolution of the 6x ploidy level of the cultivated sweetpotato (I. batatas). To further study the role of 2n pollen in sweetpotato evolution, we examined plants of Acc. 81.2. plants of five sweetpotato cultivars, and 100 randomly selected heterozygous sweetpotato seedlings. The 4× Acc. 81.2 was determined to be I. batatas. High levels of large 2n pollen were confirmed in Acc. 81.2, and low levels of 2n pollen were observed in `Sulfur' and in 16% of the sweetpotato seedlings. Presence of monad, dyad, and triad sporads confirmed that the large 2n pollen grains were the result of nonreduction in the sporad stage. These new findings are direct evidence that 2n pollen was involved in the evolution of the 6× ploidy level of sweetpotato. This is the first report of a 4× accession classified as I. batatas; it is also the first report of 2n pollen in 6× I. batatas The widespread presence of 2n pollen in sweetpotato suggests that the trait can be used to advantage in breeding programs to introgress genes from wild 4× Ipomoea spp. into cultivated 6× sweetpotato without adverse effects on genetic stability or fertility.

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Rosanna Freyre and Sandra B. Wilson

Horticultural Society 1998 Publications—Heat zone finder. 19 Dec. 2013. < http://www.ahs.org/publications/heat_zone_finder.htm > Czarnecki, D.M. II Deng, Z. 2009 Occurrence of unreduced female gametes leads to sexual polyploidization in lantana J. Amer. Soc

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Keenan Amundsen and Scott Warnke

led to important turf characteristics, and resolve polyploidization events in the genus. Materials and Methods Plant material and DNA extraction. Accessions of Agrostis were chosen that represent cultivated and non-cultivated accessions, various