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Andrés Olivos, Scott Johnson, Qin Xiaoqiong, and Carlos H. Crisosto

consequence of oxidative degradation of phenolic compounds by polyphenol oxidase (PPO), which leads to production of quinones that polymerize rapidly to form brown-colored products ( Kader and Chordas, 1984 ). The concentration of phenolic compounds, the

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Steven F. Vaughn

Localization of enzymes in specific plant tissues is crucial to understanding their role in processes such as differentiation and disease resistance. The oxidative enzymes lipoxygenase (LOX; EC, peroxidase (PER, EC and polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC have all been implicated as playing critical roles in plant disease resistance. The histochemical localization of all three enzymes in potato tuber slices was accomplished either directly on the tissue slices (for LOX) or by blotting of the tissue onto nitrocellulose membranes (for PER and PPO). LOX was visualized in specific tissues by the oxidation of KI to I2 via lipid peroxides and the subsequent reaction of I2 and endogenous starch to form a colored, insoluble complex. PER and PPO activities were visualized with 4-methoxy-α-naphthol and 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine, respectively. Fractionation of the slices and determination of enzyme activities in the fractions confirmed the reliability of these techniques.

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Daniel Ferreira Holderbaum, Tomoyuki Kon, Tsuyoshi Kudo, and Miguel Pedro Guerra

the enzymatic browning and the polyphenol–polyphenol oxidase complex of apple cultivars Confructa. 21 24 31 Vaughn, K.C. Duke, S.O. 1984 Function of polyphenol oxidase in higher plants Physiol. Plant. 60

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Brianna L. Ewing, Gregory M. Peck, Sihui Ma, Andrew P. Neilson, and Amanda C. Stewart

character of cider is complex and dependent on concentrations of several classes of compounds, the flavanol class of polyphenols is especially important to cider quality because it imparts bitterness and astringency characteristics provided by traditional

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Matthew A. Escobar, Andrew Shilling, Pine Higgins, Sandra L. Uratsu, and Abhaya M. Dandekar

heartwood formation in walnut and cherry Can. J. Bot. 56 626 634 10.1139/b78-070 Piffaut, B. Metche, M. 1991 Properties of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase in natural complexes from walnuts ( Juglans regia ) and in

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Fatemeh Khodadadi, Masoud Tohidfar, Mehdi Mohayeji, Abhaya M. Dandekar, Charles A. Leslie, Daniel A. Kluepfel, Timothy Butterfield, and Kourosh Vahdati

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici or F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis Caryologia 42 103 114 Maier, T. Güell, M. Serrano, L. 2009 Correlation of mRNA and protein in complex biological samples FEBS Lett. 583 3966 3973 Mayer, A.M. 2006 Polyphenol oxidases

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Shirin Shahkoomahally and Asghar Ramezanian

polyphenol oxidase (PPO) of kiwifruit during 120 d storage at 0 °C. Whole fruits were non-treated (control), dipped in 2% CaCl 2 solution, heat-treated at 47 °C for 5 min (H5), 10 min (H10), 15 min (H15) alone, or in combination with CaCl 2 (2%) solution

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Fei Xiong, Jieren Liao, Yuanchun Ma, Yuhua Wang, Wanping Fang, and Xujun Zhu

damages initiated by ROS, plants have evolved a complex antioxidative system that includes enzymatic antioxidants ( Scandalios, 1993 ). Polyamines, which mainly include spermidine (Spd), spermine (Spm), and Put, are small polycations observed in various

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Malkeet S. Padda and D.H. Picha

Numerous epidemiological and biomedical studies indicated the consumption of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols may help to protect the human body against many chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular ailments

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Ting-Ting Li, Zhi-Rong Li, Kang-Di Hu, Lan-Ying Hu, Xiao-Yan Chen, Yan-Hong Li, Ying Yang, Feng Yang, and Hua Zhang

), guaiacol peroxidase (POD) ( C ), lipoxygenase (LOX) ( D ), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) ( E ) in kiwifruit. The activities were determined daily on Days 0 to 6 in kiwifruit treated with water, ethylene, H 2 S, or in combination at 25 °C. Control: H 2 O; H 2