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Andrés Olivos, Scott Johnson, Qin Xiaoqiong, and Carlos H. Crisosto

consequence of oxidative degradation of phenolic compounds by polyphenol oxidase (PPO), which leads to production of quinones that polymerize rapidly to form brown-colored products ( Kader and Chordas, 1984 ). The concentration of phenolic compounds, the

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Steven F. Vaughn

Localization of enzymes in specific plant tissues is crucial to understanding their role in processes such as differentiation and disease resistance. The oxidative enzymes lipoxygenase (LOX; EC 1.13.11.12), peroxidase (PER, EC 1.11.1.7) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1.10.3.1) have all been implicated as playing critical roles in plant disease resistance. The histochemical localization of all three enzymes in potato tuber slices was accomplished either directly on the tissue slices (for LOX) or by blotting of the tissue onto nitrocellulose membranes (for PER and PPO). LOX was visualized in specific tissues by the oxidation of KI to I2 via lipid peroxides and the subsequent reaction of I2 and endogenous starch to form a colored, insoluble complex. PER and PPO activities were visualized with 4-methoxy-α-naphthol and 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine, respectively. Fractionation of the slices and determination of enzyme activities in the fractions confirmed the reliability of these techniques.

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Daniel Ferreira Holderbaum, Tomoyuki Kon, Tsuyoshi Kudo, and Miguel Pedro Guerra

the enzymatic browning and the polyphenol–polyphenol oxidase complex of apple cultivars Confructa. 21 24 31 Vaughn, K.C. Duke, S.O. 1984 Function of polyphenol oxidase in higher plants Physiol. Plant. 60

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Brianna L. Ewing, Gregory M. Peck, Sihui Ma, Andrew P. Neilson, and Amanda C. Stewart

character of cider is complex and dependent on concentrations of several classes of compounds, the flavanol class of polyphenols is especially important to cider quality because it imparts bitterness and astringency characteristics provided by traditional

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Matthew A. Escobar, Andrew Shilling, Pine Higgins, Sandra L. Uratsu, and Abhaya M. Dandekar

Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is a Type 3 copper protein, which catalyzes the oxidation of monophenols or o -diphenols to o -quinones ( Klabunde et al., 1998 ). PPO-generated quinones are highly reactive and will crosslink with proteins or polymerize

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Fatemeh Khodadadi, Masoud Tohidfar, Mehdi Mohayeji, Abhaya M. Dandekar, Charles A. Leslie, Daniel A. Kluepfel, Timothy Butterfield, and Kourosh Vahdati

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici or F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis Caryologia 42 103 114 Maier, T. Güell, M. Serrano, L. 2009 Correlation of mRNA and protein in complex biological samples FEBS Lett. 583 3966 3973 Mayer, A.M. 2006 Polyphenol oxidases

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Shirin Shahkoomahally and Asghar Ramezanian

polyphenol oxidase (PPO) of kiwifruit during 120 d storage at 0 °C. Whole fruits were non-treated (control), dipped in 2% CaCl 2 solution, heat-treated at 47 °C for 5 min (H5), 10 min (H10), 15 min (H15) alone, or in combination with CaCl 2 (2%) solution

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Fei Xiong, Jieren Liao, Yuanchun Ma, Yuhua Wang, Wanping Fang, and Xujun Zhu

damages initiated by ROS, plants have evolved a complex antioxidative system that includes enzymatic antioxidants ( Scandalios, 1993 ). Polyamines, which mainly include spermidine (Spd), spermine (Spm), and Put, are small polycations observed in various

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Jorge M. Fonseca, Hyun-Jin Kim, Wesley L. Kline, Christian A. Wyenandt, Murshidul Hoque, Husein Ajwa, and Ned French

methylesterase, polyphenol oxidase and physicochemical properties of typical long-storage cherry tomatoes cultivated under water stress regime J. Sci. Food Agr. 88 389 396 Buta, J.G. Moline, H.E. 1998 Methyl jasmonate

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Malkeet S. Padda and D.H. Picha

Numerous epidemiological and biomedical studies indicated the consumption of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols may help to protect the human body against many chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular ailments