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Heidi A. Kratsch, James A. Schrader, Kenneth G. McCabe, Gowrishankar Srinivasan, David Grewell and William R. Graves

diameters of 4.5 inches (11.43 cm) and volumes of 680 cm 3 . The petroleum control had a top diameter of 4.5 inches and a volume of 655 cm 3 . The top row shows prototype containers made of polylactic acid (PLA)-based blends and composites, which are from

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Jeremy S. Cowan, Debra A. Inglis and Carol A. Miles

Lamont, W.J. 2005 Plastics: Modifying the microclimate for the production of vegetable crops HortTechnology 15 477 481 Lunt, J. 2000 Polylactic acid polymers for fibers and nonwovens Intl. Fiber J. 15 48 52 Martín-Closas, L. Bach, M.A. Pelacho, A.M. 2008

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Nicholas J. Flax, Christopher J. Currey, James A. Schrader, David Grewell and William R. Graves

-plant species may be beneficial. Fig. 1. ‘Serena White’ angelonia grown in seven types of biocontainers 4.5-inch (11.43 cm) top-diameter novel biopolymer containers made from (by weight) 90% polylactic acid [PLA (a commercial biopolymer)] and 10% lignin powder

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Nicholas J. Flax, Christopher J. Currey, Alexander G. Litvin, James A. Schrader, David Grewell and William R. Graves

× hortorum L.H. Bailey ‘Pinto Premium Deep Red’) in a soil moisture sensor–controlled irrigation system were polylactic acid (PLA; commercial bioplastic), lignin powder, soy polymer with adipic anhydride (SP.A), BioRes (BR; a refined coproduct of corn

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Kenneth G. McCabe, James A. Schrader, Christopher J. Currey, David Grewell and William R. Graves

‒20P‒244K mg. The various soy-composite biocontainers consisted of soy bioplastic compounded with poly(lactic) acid (PLA) at 50% soy bioplastic–50% PLA (by weight), soy bioplastic compounded with PLA at 33% soy bioplastic–67% PLA, soy bioplastic

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Kenneth G. McCabe, Christopher J. Currey, James A. Schrader, David Grewell, Jake Behrens and William R. Graves

bioplastic (SP.A), 42.5% poly(lactic) acid (PLA), and 15% biochar (BC). SP.A‒PHA‒BC consisted of a pelletized bioplastic that contained 62.5% (by weight) of SP.A, 22.5% polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), and 15% BC. Uppercase letters indicate mean separation within

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Kenneth G. McCabe, James A. Schrader, Samy Madbouly, David Grewell and William R. Graves

’ salvia (PA = polyamide, PLA = polylactic acid, PU = polyurethane, TO = tung oil). Water-use efficiency is grams of plant dry weight divided by the liters of water required to produce the plant during 8 weeks of production under standard greenhouse

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Shuresh Ghimire, Edward Scheenstra and Carol A. Miles

contaminated with soil and debris, only about 10% is recycled ( Kasirajan and Ngouajio, 2012 ). Soil-biodegradable mulches (BDMs) are made from biodegradable polymers such as poly(butylene adipate- co -terephthalate), polylactic acid, polyhydroxyalkanoate, and

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Nicholas J. Flax, Christopher J. Currey, James A. Schrader, David Grewell and William R. Graves

We quantified the growth and quality of ‘Arizona Sun’ blanket flower (Gaillardia ×grandiflora) grown in different bioplastic containers and characterized the interest of commercial perennial producers in using bioplastic-based biocontainers in their herbaceous perennial production schemes. Plants were grown in three types of #1 trade gallon (0.75 gal) containers at five commercial perennial producers in the upper-midwestern United States. Containers included one made of polylactic acid (PLA) and a proprietary bio-based filler derived from a coproduct of corn ethanol production, a commercially available recycled paper fiber container twice dip-coated with castor oil–based biopolyurethane and a petroleum-based plastic (control) container. Plant growth data were collected when most plants had open flowers, and plant shoots, roots, and containers were rated by commercial grower participants. Questionnaires were administered at the beginning and at the end of the experiment to characterize the perceptions and interest of growers in using these containers, their interest in different bioplastic-based container attributes, and their satisfaction from using the containers. Container type and grower interacted to affect growth index (GI), shoot dry weight (SDW), and container rating. Root rating was affected by container type or grower and shoot rating was unaffected by either. Our results indicate that commercial producers can adapt these bioplastic-based biocontainers to blanket flower production with few or no changes to their crop cultural practices.

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James A. Schrader, Gowrishankar Srinivasan, David Grewell, Kenneth G. McCabe and William R. Graves

isolate (26%), soy flour (26%), water (31%), glycerin (8%), phthalic anhydride (4%), adipic acid (4%), sodium sulfite (1%), and potassium sorbate (less than 1%). The PLA-coated soy-plastic containers were made of the same injection-molded material as the