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wild (seeded) diploid bananas produce abundant pollen, which generally have a greater amount of viable pollen when compared with cultivated (seedless) bananas ( Fortescue and Turner 2004 ). The quantity and viability of pollen are important

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and fertilized. However, the viability of pollen usually affects pollination, fertilization, and fruit set rate, so it is necessary to study the characteristics of litchi pollen for cultivation and breeding. For entomophilous flowers, the amount of

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al., 2005 ). The first objective of this study was to examine the impact of conspecific, heterospecific, and mixed pollen transfer between blue hubbard and butternut squash on fruit and seed production. Crop yield may be influenced by pollen amount

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cucumerinum ). The amount of pollen required for fruit set depends on the number of pistillate flowers produced by the cucumber cultivar. Generally, monoecious cucumber plants are planted in the field, and plants produce enough pollen for fruit set. Since ‘NC

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reflects the amount of starch accumulated in the pollen and is highly correlated with pollen fertility ( Liu et al., 2004 ). In general, darkly stained pollen grains are regarded as viable ( Fig. 1A ), whereas those lightly stained or unstained are

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amounts of functional pollen, the evidence of which is seen by high fruit set in some female cultivars such as ‘Supreme’, and high fruit set in secondary flowering shoots when relatively little pollen is available from pollenizer vines. This work was

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harvested, and pollen was examined under a microscope at 250×. Pollen was dusted onto a drop of water on a microscope slide by rotating a flower between the thumb and index finger. The amount of pollen shed per flower was estimated subjectively compared with

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the accumulation of large amounts of nutrients before germination, usually starch or lipid droplets. These changes in the nutritional components are closely related to pollen development. The duration and type of nutrient accumulation in anthers vary

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pollen produced is not viable. Male sterile C. oleifera plants can produce fully petalized anthers ( Fig. 1 A3, B3, and C3), partially petalized anthers, or small amounts of normal anthers with no deformation in appearance ( Fig. 1 A2, B2, and C2

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upside down between the strands of the female flowers ( Akhavan et al., 2021 ). This method needs a great amount of work, time, and pollen grains ( Salomón-Torres et al., 2021 ). In addition, it yields a high FS (85% to 95%) for most cultivars, thus

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