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Wesley Gartner, Paul C. Bethke, Theodore J. Kisha, and James Nienhuis

make meaningful selections despite differences between genotypes in rates of development and size that may be correlated with traits of interest. Modern snap beans are bred for small seed size compared with pod tissue, and one proxy for maturity used by

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Boshou Liao and S.L. Kitto

In this study, the pod development dynamics and culture response in lima bean (Phaselous lunatus L.) were investigated. The average percentage of flowers to form pins was 17.5%. Pin length and width (mm), and weight (g) were all highly correlated with the days after pollination (DAP), with correlation coefficients of 0.98, 0.99 and 0.97, respectively. Pods grew relatively faster between 12 and 20 DAP, and reached their maximum length at about 35 DAP. Explants from pods of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 DAP were cultured onto B5 medium containing BA (2 mg/L), kinetin (0.5 mg/L), 2,4-D (1 mg/L) or NAA (1 mg/L), sucrose (5%), and agar (0.7%). Soft calli only formed from the cut region on the seed coat or the suspensor attachment site of 5 and 10 DAP seeds. The 15 DAP explants were cultured as embryos (cotyledons 2 mm in length), and no callus was observed on them after 30 days of culture when they became brown. Twenty and 25 DAP embryos initiated calli and/or organ-like structures on the abaxial surface of cotyledons or embryo axes after 20 days of culture.

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Maricelis Acevedo Román, Albeiro Molina Castañeda, Juan Carlos Angel Sánchez, Carlos Germán Muñoz, and James S. Beaver

The inheritance of resistance to bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) was studied in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The original cross was made between breeding line PR9556-158, which produces deformed pods when infected with BGYMV, and PR9556-171, which has normal pod development when inoculated with the virus. Pod type was evaluated on plants from six generations (parental lines, F1, F2, F2:3, F3:4, and backcrosses of the F1 to both parents) at mid-pod fill (R8), ≈65 days after planting. The segregation patterns from the F2, F2:3, F3:4, and backcross populations were consistent with the hypothesis that a single dominant gene confers normal pod development in PR9556-171. When inoculated with BGYMV, the deformed pods of PR9556-158 produced fewer seeds per pod than PR9556-171, resulting in lower seed yield. The gene symbol Bgp-1 has been assigned for this dominant resistance gene that controls the normal pod reaction to BGYMV in common bean.

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Mark E. Uchanski and Adam Blalock

the cost of sorting and removing green pods in a once-over mechanical harvest system. Traditional plant breeding may be another way to improve the efficiency of mechanical harvest and help change the staggered pod development of cayenne. There are

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Kyle M. VandenLangenberg, Paul C. Bethke, and James Nienhuis

pod development. Materials and Methods Plant material. A sample of six diverse common bean genotypes with differing culinary characteristics was evaluated in the summers of 2009 and 2010 ( Table 1 ). ‘Hystyle’ was selected as a modern large sieve

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Thanidchaya Puthmee, Kenji Takahashi, Midori Sugawara, Rieko Kawamata, Yoshie Motomura, Takashi Nishizawa, Toshiyuki Aikawa, and Wilawan Kumpoun

suberin polymer ( Keren-Keiserman et al., 2004b ). Ethylene is thought to be involved in the development of lignified cell walls containing suberin polymers ( Gerchikov et al., 2008 ) through the activation of POD activity ( Argandoña et al., 2001 ). The

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Vincent M. Russo

The increased appetite of Americans for various ethnic foods ( Andrews, 1995 ) has contributed to the development of salsa-type products with varying degrees of pungency. The pungency in the product is determined by the pepper ( Capsicum annuum L

Open access

Ting Min, Li-Fang Niu, Jun Xie, Yang Yi, Li-mei Wang, You-wei Ai, and Hong-xun Wang

simultaneously during gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment in GA3-induced xylem development in Betula ( Guo et al., 2015 ). Overexpression of ThNAC13 in Tamarix hispida induced POD activities, and ThNAC13 induced the expression of PODs in transgenic A

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Samson Zeray Tesfay, Sakhile Mathe, Albert T. Modi, and Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi

POD activity in the earliest stage of plant development were correlated to those of SOD and CAT activities. Diverse environmental stresses differentially affect plant processes that lead to loss of cellular homeostasis accompanied by the formation of

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Junqin Zong, Yanzhi Gao, Jingbo Chen, Hailin Guo, Yi Wang, Fan Meng, Yiwei Jiang, and Jianxiu Liu

Waterlogging is a common environmental stress that limits plant growth and development. Under waterlogging conditions, soil pores are filled with water and hypoxia often occurs, thereby hindering the exchange of O 2 and other gases between roots