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, tetraploid, pentaploid, hexaploid, and octoploid levels were identified. Variability in ploidy level was confined to series Cyrta . Accessions representing series Styrax were measured as diploids. This survey confirms the published count for S. redivivus

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confirm ploidy levels in a ploidy series with numerous, small chromosomes, as well as provide a tool for investigating chromosome segregation through copy number variation in rDNA signals of interploid hybrids. rDNA has been used to study the origin and

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confirmed with cytology. The existence of putative pentaploid K. polifolia in the wild implies that there is a natural occurring ploidy series within the species, potentially including tetraploid, pentaploid and hexaploid individuals or populations

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., 1966 ; Kondo, 1977 ). Although Camellia sasanqua is often reported to be hexaploid ( Ackerman, 1971 ; Kondo, 1977 ), pentaploids, heptaploids, octoploids, decaploids, and aneuploids have been noted ( Ito et al., 1957 ; Kondo, 1977 ). Ploidy series

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series Pubescentes (1.47 ± 0.01 pg), Villosae (1.55 ± 0.02 pg), Ligustrina (1.49 ± 0.05 pg), and Pinnatifoliae (1.52 ± 0.02 pg) ( Table 3 ). Table 3. Ploidy and relative genome size in Syringa determined using flow cytometry analysis of DAPI

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H . macrophylla cultivar Trophee as a parent in a series of crosses with other diploid H . macrophylla cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate reciprocal full-sibling H . macrophylla families for ploidy and ornamental traits

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Caprice’. Most of the meiotic work was conducted at the University of Georgia (Athens and Griffin, GA). Results Ploidy analysis. A polyploid series was observed among the 26 commercial cultivars and six UF breeding lines analyzed for ploidy level ( Table 1

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Using laser flow cytometry, nuclear DNA amounts were estimated for 12 Prunus species, representing three subgenera [Prunophora (Prunus), Amygdalus, and Cerasus (Lithocerasus)], two interspecific hybrids, four cultivars, and a synthetic polyploid series of peach consisting of haploids, diploids, triploids, and tetraploids (periclinal cytochimeras). Peach nuclear DNA content ranged from 0.30 pg for the haploid nuclei to 1.23 pg for the tetraploid nuclei. The diploid genome of peach is relatively small and was estimated to be 0.60±0.03 pg (or 5.8×108 nucleotide base pairs). The polyploid series represented the expected arithmetic progression, as genome size positively correlated with ploidy level (i.e., DNA content was proportional to chromosome number). The DNA content for the 12 diploid species and two interspecific diploid hybrids ranged from 0.57 to 0.79 pg. Genome size estimates were verified independently by Southern blot analysis, using restriction fragment length polymorphism clones as gene-copy equivalents. Thus, a relatively small and stable nuclear genome typifies the Prunus species investigated, consistent with their low, basic chromosome number (× = 8).

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The sweet potato Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. is classified in series Batatas (Choisy) in Convolvulaceae, with 12 other species and an interspecific true hybrid. The phylogenetic relationships of a sweetpotato cultivar and 13 accessions of Ipomoeas in the series Batatas were investigated using the nucleotide sequence variation of the nuclear-encoded β-amylase gene. First, flowers were examined to identify the species, and DNA flow cytometry used to determine their ploidy. The sweetpotato accession was confirmed as a hexaploid, I. tabascana a tetraploid, and all other species were diploids. A 1.1–1.3 kb fragment of the β-amylase gene spanning two exons separated by a long intron was PCR-amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Exon sequences were highly conserved, while the intron yielded large sequence differences. Intron analysis grouped species currently recognized as A and B genome types into separate clades. This grouping supported the prior classification of all the species, with one exception. The species I. tiliacea was previously classified as a B genome species, but this DNA study classifies it as an A genome species. From the intron alignment, sequences specific to both A and B genome species were identified. Exon sequences indicated that I. ramosissima and I. umbraticola were quite different from other A genome species. Placement of I. littoralis was questionable: its introns were similar to other B genome species, but exons were quite different. Exon evolution indicated the B genome species evolved faster than A genome species. Both intron and exon results indicated the B genome species most closely related to sweetpotato (I. batatas) were I. trifida and I. tabascana.

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ploidy series, with estimates of 70% tetraploid (2 n = 4 x = 68), 15% triploid (2 n = 3 x = 51), and 10% diploid (2 n = 2 x = 34), and the remaining species of greater ploidy level ( Fryer and Hylmö, 2009 ). Apomixis is common in Cotoneaster and

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