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Jonathan Phillips, E. Jay Holcomb and Kathleen Kelley

1) evaluate consumer preference for value-added annual planters based on color harmony, container style, and retail price; 2) understand grower and retailer interest and intent on offering annual planters similar to those evaluated by consumer

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Jonathan D. Phillips, Kathleen M. Kelley and E. Jay Holcomb

Three intercept surveys were conducted at the Penn State Southeast Research and Extension Center in Landisville, Pa., at three separate field days during the period of 28 July 2004 to 4 Aug. 2004 to determine grower (n = 78), retailer (n = 52), and consumer (n = 55) preference for annual planters. Survey participants were self-selected and asked to answer questions evaluating both their preference for and past experience with purchasing annual planters, as well as sociographic and demographic questions. Growers who were 45 years of age or younger were more likely to take price into consideration when creating an annual planter (68.8%) than those who were 46 years of age or older (43.3%), but less likely to use point-of-purchase material to educate consumers on proper container care (45.2% and 75.0%, respectively). Additionally, retailers whose business was 89% retail or less were less likely to consider price when creating annual planters (53.3%) than those participants whose business was 90% retail or greater (84.2%), and were also found to be less likely to use point-of-purchase material to educate consumers on proper container care (46.7% and 72.2%, respectively). Consumers were more likely to consider price when purchasing an annual planter if they were female (92.7%) than if they were male (66.7%). Consumer participants who resided in single-family homes were more likely to take the color combination into consideration when purchasing annual planters (100.0%) than those who live in another form of housing (e.g., apartment or mobile home; 66.7%). Additionally, consumers who live in single-adult households were less likely to consider color combination when purchasing an annual planter (88.9%) than those who live in households with two or more adults (100.0%).

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Andrew M. Birmingham, Eric A. Buzby, Donte L. Davis, Eric R. Benson, James L. Glancey, Wallace G. Pill, Thomas A. Evans, Robert P. Mulrooney and Michael W. Olszewski

A mechanical planter was developed to sow seed of baby lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) in small plots. The mechanical seeder allowed small plots to be quickly and consistently seeded at a fixed spacing. Seeds were manually spread along a 10-ft (3.0 m) base plate containing 50 holes of slightly larger diameter than the seed length and at the desired seed spacing [2.4 inches (6 cm)]. Once all the holes were filled, a slider plate below the base plate containing holes of the same diameter and spacing, but which were slightly offset, was slid horizontally so that the holes of the base and slider plates aligned and the seeds dropped to the bottom of the furrow. Compared to manual planting, the mechanical planter increased the precision of seed placement and reduced the time needed to plant 50 seeds. The planter was easy to use and transport, and was inexpensive.

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Eric B. Brennan

cited Aikins, S.H.M. Bart-Plange, A. Opoku-Baffour, S. 2010 Performance evaluation of jab planters for maize planting and inorganic fertilizer application ARPN J. Agr. Biol Sci. 5 29 33 Ambrosino, M.D. Luna, J.M. Jepson, P.C. Wratten, S.D. 2006 Relative

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R.L. Parish and R.P. Bracy

Prior studies have demonstrated that a Gaspardo vacuum seeder provides less uniform seed spacing than a Stanhay belt seeder. It was hypothesized that the difference was primarily because of the greater seed drop height on the Gaspardo seeder. A Gaspardo metering unit was modified by adding a slide or an enclosed tube to guide the seeds from the release point (seed plate) to 1.0 inch (25 mm) above the bottom of the seed furrow. Seed uniformity tests were conducted with cabbage (Brassica oleracea), onion (Allium cepa), and mustard (Brassica juncea) seeds. The modified planter unit was compared with an unmodified unit. No improvement in seeding uniformity was noted with either the slide or the tube. In fact, seed placement uniformity was degraded with the addition of the slide and tube. Although it is probable that the seed spacing nonuniformity was caused by drop height, attempts to control the seed trajectory were unsuccessful.

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Aimin Liu and Joyce G. Latimer

The growth of `Mirage' and `StarBrite' watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] transplants were evaluated in TODD 125, 100A, 150, 175, and 200 flats with root cell volumes of 18, 26, 36, 46, and 80 cm3, respectively. The effects of rooting volume restriction (RVR) on the number of leaves developed, leaf expansion, and shoot and root dry weight gain increased with time measured at 5, 10, 15, or 20 days after seedling emergence (DAE) for `Mirage' or 4, 8, 12, or 16 DAE for `StarBrite'. Generally, the greatest effect of RVR occurred between 10 and 15 DAE for `Mirage' and 8 and 12 DAE for `StarBrite' for most measurements. Root: shoot dry weight ratios generally were similar among the cell volumes. In a 1993 field test with `StarBrite' grown in the previously described flats, transplants from the TODD 125s produced the least growth and the poorest yield in terms of fruit per plant, total number of marketable fruit, and total yield. Transplants from TODD 200s produced a higher total yield than plants from other cell volumes.

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Brian A. Kahn, Niels O. Maness, Donna R. Chrz and Lynda K. Carrier

three seeding depths. The desired seeding rate was one seed per 2.5 cm of row length. The hand-pushed planter (Planet Jr., Cole Planter Co., Albany, GA) planted about two raw basil seeds per 2.5 cm of row length at the lowest setting (plate hole 1, 2

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James A. Schrader, Christopher J. Currey, Nicholas J. Flax, David Grewell and William R. Graves

(marigold and petunia). The second experiment examined the performance of pelletized biopolymer fertilizer and biopolymer fertilizer spikes on the postproduction growth and health of container ornamentals in 12-inch hanging baskets and 13-inch patio planters

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Virginia I. Lohr

H/LA Paper no. 91-27, College of Agriculture and Home Economics Research Center, Pullman, WA 99164. The author thanks Planter Technology of Mountain View, Calif., for donating the planters used in this