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Kenneth G. McCabe, James A. Schrader, Samy Madbouly, David Grewell, and William R. Graves

Valued at $10.5 billion in 2009, the container crops industry is a large sector of commercial horticulture that produces over four billion plants in containers per year and uses over 1.6 billion pounds of petroleum plastic for containers ( Schrader

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Jeff B. Million and Thomas H. Yeager

Burger, 1997 ), comparatively little research has evaluated the ability of containerized plants to capture sprinkler irrigation water. Irrigation capture is important because containers occupy only a fraction of the production area even when closely

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Jesús Gallegos, Juan E. Álvaro, and Miguel Urrestarazu

, mechanize production, facilitate planting, and allow control of mineral nutrition parameters. However, improvements remain to be developed. The substrate, fertilization, and fertigation of a culture container, there are multiple aspects that can affect root

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Susmitha S. Nambuthiri and Dewayne L. Ingram

flats or bare root, or as more mature plants in #1 (1-gal) containers. The cost of large numbers of plants required to cover an area is often a limiting factor considering most landscape installation budgets. Conversations (personal contact) with

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Xueni Wang, R. Thomas Fernandez, Bert M. Cregg, Rafael Auras, Amy Fulcher, Diana R. Cochran, Genhua Niu, Youping Sun, Guihong Bi, Susmitha Nambuthiri, and Robert L. Geneve

emerged as alternative options to plastic containers ( Hall et al., 2010 ; Nambuthiri et al., 2015a ). As plant growth is an important factor in growers’ consideration when choosing containers, experiments have been carried out to investigate the impact

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Nicholas J. Flax, Christopher J. Currey, James A. Schrader, David Grewell, and William R. Graves

addition, more than 75% of plant containers used by container-crop producers are recyclable ( Yue et al., 2010 ). However, these findings do not indicate the total amount of recycled plastics used or the relative proportion of virgin plastics used to

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Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, Andrew K. Koeser, Guihong Bi, Victoria Anderson, Krista Jacobsen, Renee Conneway, Sven Verlinden, Ryan Stewart, and Sarah T. Lovell

available in the market ( Table 1 ). Biocontainers are generally classified as being either plantable or compostable ( Evans and Hensley, 2004 ; Evans et al., 2010 ). Plantable biocontainers are designed to allow roots to grow through the container walls

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Gabriele Amoroso, Piero Frangi, Riccardo Piatti, Francesco Ferrini, Alessio Fini, and Marco Faoro

Nursery container design affects post-transplant growth of several species ( Arnold and McDonald, 2006 ; Gilman, 2001 ; Struve, 1993 ). Plants grown in smooth-sided plastic containers for a long production cycle result in deformed roots ( Gilman

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H.M. Mathers, S.B. Lowe, C. Scagel, D.K. Struve, and L.T. Case

finished potted plant appeals to consumers. Plants grown in containers are easier to handle and transport and are less prone to injury compared with balled and burlapped root balls. Growing plants in containers expands the window of marketability of the

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Donita L. Bryan, Michael A. Arnold, Astrid Volder, W. Todd Watson, Leonardo Lombardini, John J. Sloan, Luis A. Valdez-Aguilar, and Andrew D. Cartmill

requires a series of transplanting events in which trees are sequentially transferred to larger containers (potting-up/up-canning). This may cause problems because trees can potentially be planted too deep or too shallow at each up-canning. Variability in