Pistachio (Pistacia vera) was successfully introduced into California and initially touted as a tree nut crop with no disease or insect pests. Unfortunately, these expectations were dashed as a number of diseases and pests followed commercial plantings, making plant protection practices integral to production. Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae) devastated early plantings but is now controlled with the use of resistant rootstocks. Botryosphaeria blight (Botryosphaeria dothidea) and alternaria late blight (Alternaria alternata) are recently arrived foliar fungal diseases that blight fruit clusters and defoliate trees, respectively, and multiple fungicide applications are needed for control. The conversion to low volume irrigation systems, specifically to drip or buried drip, has reduced disease. Pruning out botryosphaeria blight infections has reduced overwintering inoculum and disease, while current research aims at accurately predicting infection events to increase fungicide efficacy. A number of hemipteran insect pests have been associated with epicarp lesion: spring treatments have been replaced with dormant carbaryl and oil applications which are less toxic to beneficial insects while controlling phytocoris (Phytocoris californicus and P. relativus) and soft scale pests. Early season insect damage can be tolerated because trees compensate by maturing a higher percentage of remaining fruit kernels. Some mirid (Calocoris spp.) pests can be effectively reduced by eliminating alternate hosts in an effective weed control program. If lygus (Lygus hesperus) populations are present, weeds should not be disturbed from bloom until shell hardening to prevent movement by insects into the trees where feeding can result in epicarp lesion. Stink bugs (Pentatomidae) and leaffooted bugs (Leptoglossus clypealis and L. occidentalis) can penetrate the hardened shell and cause internal nut necrosis along with epicarp lesion. Trap crops are used to monitor pest populations in order to develop treatment thresholds. Degree-day based timing of treatments increase insecticide efficacy for the control of navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) and obliquebanded leafroller (Choristonuera rosaceana), but navel orangeworm populations are more effectively managed by destroying unharvested over wintering fruit. Bacillus thuriengiensis sprays, liquid-lime-sulfur, and biological control show promise in controlling obliquebanded leafroller.
evaluate saffron crocus as a new specialty crop for New England, to determine whether winter protection was beneficial for saffron crocus production in Rhode Island (USDA zone 6a), and to evaluate corm planting densities for a mesic, high
An overview of current legal options for the protection of plant innovations is presented. Plant protection options vary from country to country, depending on the type of plant invention-e.g., a new biotechnology method, a gene, plant cultivar, or hybrid. Plant science, plant breeding, and biotechnology are interconnected and international in scope. Therefore, it is important to consider international plant protection options available for plant innovations.
protection of other crops grown outdoors such as apples and strawberries has also been conducted ( Heinemann et al., 1992 ; Koc et al., 2000 ; Stombaugh et al., 1992 ). Unlike those crops, most tropical and subtropical foliage plants in Florida are grown in
Almond, [Prunus dulcis (synonym Prunus amygdalus)] planted on approximately 595,000 acres (240,797 ha), is California's largest acreage tree crop. California's Central Valley accounts for nearly 100% of the U.S. domestic production of almonds. Integrated pest management (IPM) programs that integrate cultural practices and pest and disease monitoring with selective controls have improved plant protection in almond. Methods of orchard floor management and their effects must also be taken into account. Minimizing dust reduces mites while harvesting earlier and the destruction of overwintering refugia are cultural practices that reduce worm damage. Improved methods for field sampling and monitoring have reduced the need for pesticide applications while improving timing and effectiveness of needed crop protection sprays. Selective controls have further reduced the impact on nontarget species. Augmentative parasite releases have also helped manage navel orangeworm (Ameylois transitella). Effective use of new selective fungicides will require precise application timing and greater knowledge of diseases and resistance management. A better understanding of disease life cycles leading to improved monitoring of the fungal diseases, shothole (Wilsonomyces carpophilus), almond scab (Cladosporium carpophilum), and anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum) have reduced fungicide applications. Future challenges include the potential loss of effective pest control products, the need to continually develop improved utilization strategies, and maintaining economic sustainability.
most appropriate mechanism ( Shelton and Tracy, 2017 ). IP protection of plants is involved and complex ( Batur and Dedeurwaerdere, 2014 ; Clark, 2011 ). The International Society for Horticultural Science held two symposia on the topic in 2014 and
the European Union and the United States, many chemical pesticides have been taken off the market because of stricter environmental and public health regulations. Therefore, there is an increased need for alternative plant protection materials
inoculation of the affected areas for the three assessed species. The presence of a thicker cuticle in lettuce leaves (58%) is probably related to the better protection against B. cinerea due to the presence of Si, compared with cucumber plants (14%), in
The Plant Variety Protection (PVP) Act provides intellectual property rights to new varieties of seed-reproduced plants. Eligible varieties must demonstrate that they are uniform, stable, and distinct from all other varieties. In 1991 the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) adopted a new Convention. As a member of UPOV, the United States needed to amend the PVP Act to conform to the 1991 UPOV Convention. Amendments to the PVP Act were signed by President Clinton on 6 Oct. 1994, and will become effective on 4 Apr. 1995. Among other changes, these amendments will provide protection to tuber-propagated varieties and first-generation hybrids. An overview of the amendments and a comparison of rights granted under PVP and plant patents will be presented.
‘Jackpot’ tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were grown in 6 plant protection systems with or without black polyethylene mulch. Mulching increased early and total yield of large and marketable fruit and increased total yield of cull fruit. Row covers reduced early yield of large fruit and average large fruit weight. Use of large transplants from 7.5-cm square peat pots tended to increase early marketable yield but decreased early and total average large fruit weight as compared to performance without a plant protection system.