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Donald N. Maynard

Handbook of Plant Nutrition. 2007. Allen V. Barker and David J. Pilbeam (eds.). CRC Press, 600 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300, Boca Raton, FL 33487. 613 p., $139.95 hardcover. ISBN 0-8247-5904-4. For almost half a century Chapman

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Bhimanagouda S. Patil, Kevin Crosby, David Byrne, and Kendal Hirschi

resistance. The improvement of food security to improve human health requires a paradigm shift in plant breeding to integrate nutrition ( DellaPenna, 1999 ). This will require coordination of scientists involved in plant breeding, human health, and

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Allen V. Barker

Mineral Nutrition and Plant Disease. Lawrence E. Datnoff, Wade H. Elmer, and Don M. Huber (editors). 2007. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. 278 pages. $89.00 Hardcover. ISBN 978-0-89054-346-7. This book covers the relationship of mineral nutrients

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Valéria Santos Cavalcante, Renato de Mello Prado, Ricardo de Lima Vasconcelos, Hilário Júnior de Almeida, and Thais Ramos da Silva

, which can prevent diseases ( Charoensiri et al., 2009 ). To meet market demands, it is essential to observe the nutritional status of plants during cultivation, especially regarding macronutrients, because, when present in adequate concentrations, they

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Arnon Dag, Ran Erel, Alon Ben-Gal, Isaac Zipori, and Uri Yermiyahu

be difficult-to-root cultivars. In such cultivars, grafting, despite its expense, can be the main method for propagation. One of the factors influencing rooting rate of cuttings of evergreen trees is stock-plant mineral nutrition ( Blazich et al

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Noriko Ohtake, Masaharu Ishikura, Hiroshi Suzuki, Wataru Yamori, and Eiji Goto

lettuce. We posed three questions: 1) Does continuous irradiation with alternating red/blue light enhance plant growth? 2) Does it affect nutritional quality, including concentrations of sugar, ascorbic acid, and anthocyanins? 3) What mechanisms are

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Cindy L. McKenzie and Joseph P. Albano

combinations have been shown to reduce the severity of the disorder by reducing sweetpotato whitefly populations ( Powell and Stofella, 1998 ; Schuster, 2002 ; Schuster et al., 1989a , 1989b ) Plant nutrition may also play a key role in the tomato ripening

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Jinan Feng and Allen V. Barker

Polyamine accumulation is a response of plants to various environmental stresses. Polyamine accumulation was assessed in relation to ammonium accumulation and ethylene evolution in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) under nutritional stress. Nutritional stresses were imparted on plants grown in quartz sand culture under greenhouse conditions with NH4-based modified Hoagland's solution or with NO3-based solutions without P, K, Ca, or Mg. The plants receiving NH4 nutrition were grown with or without 10-5 M (aminooxy)acetic acid (AOA) or 10-5 M silver thiosulfate (STS). Plants on nutrient deficient solution were grown with or without the AOA. When plants appeared with toxic or deficient symptoms, the new fully expanded leaves were collected and extracted by 5% perchloric acid for polyamine analyzes by HPLC. Plants receiving NH4-based nutrition had high putrescine and low spermidine concentrations. High spermidine and low putrescine concentrations occurred in plants receiving complete NO3-based nutrition. For plants receiving NH4-based nutrition, application of AOA suppressed accumulation of putrescine but had no effect on spermidine, and STS had no effect on polyamine accumulation. For plants receiving NO3-based nutrition without P, K, Ca, or Mg, the application of AOA restricted accumulation of putrescine and spermidine. High putrescine concentration was accompanied by high ammonium accumulation, high ethylene evolution, and stressinduced symptoms, indicating an association between polyamine accumulation and other stress-related phenomena.

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Fredrick A. Bliss

Fruits and vegetables are rich sources of the micro mineral elements and vitamins often lacking in diets based on cereals, grain legumes, and starchy roots and tubers, but void of animal products. When embarking on a breeding program to improve nutritional compounds, the way the fruit or vegetable is consumed in mixed diets must be considered. To alleviate nutritional problems, the nutrients must not only be present in the plant parts consumed, but also absorbed efficiently in the body. In some cases, it may be necessary to modify compounds to improve absorption as well as increase the concentration. Breeding to improve nutritionally related traits can be approached in a manner similar to that for other traits; i.e., identification of genetic variability, selection for enhanced levels using either individual phenotype or family mean values, and testing for field performance. In addition to improving amount and availability, avoidance of undesirable correlated responses due to genetic or physiological linkages between the trait of interest and other traits deleterious to either plant growth or the consumer is critically important during selection. The growing number of molecular marker-based linkage maps should prove especially useful for identifying genes of interest and employing marker-aided selection. When insufficient variability for amount or type of compound is present in the gene pool, strategies using transgenic plants may be useful.

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Allen V. Barker and Kenneth A. Corey

Urea fertilization of `Heinz 1350' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in sand or soil culture did not enhance ethylene evolution or restrict growth relative to plants receiving \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathbf{NO}_{\mathbf{3}}^{\mathbf{-}}\) \end{document} whereas \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathbf{NO}_{\mathbf{4}}^{\mathbf{+}}\) \end{document} nutrition doubled the relative rates of ethylene evolution and restricted relative growth. Inhibitors of N transformations in media (nitrapyrin, Np; hydroquinone, HQ; and phenylphosphorodiamidate, PPD) had no apparent stimulator effects on ethylene evolution of plants grown on urea or \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathbf{NO}_{\mathbf{3}}^{\mathbf{-}}\) \end{document} nutrition in sand or soil. Ethylene evolution was enhanced by PPD relative to that by Np or HQ for plants receiving \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathbf{NO}_{\mathbf{4}}^{\mathbf{+}}\) \end{document} nutrition. Each inhibitor had toxic effects on plant growth. Increasing K+ supply from 0 to 8 mm in nutrient solutions decreased ethylene evolution and increased plant growth with urea fertilization. Urea had low phytotoxicity if its hydrolysis to \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathbf{NO}_{\mathbf{4}}^{\mathbf{+}}\) \end{document} was prevented in the media. Chemical names used: p-dihydroxybenzene (hydroquinone); benzenephosphorodiamide (phenylphosphorodiamidate); 2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl)pyridine (nitrapyrin).