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A limitation to distribution of some field-grown sod is the time required to produce a saleable product rooted sufficiently to retain its shape when removed from the ground. Research for a more efficient sod production process was examined using sod segments planted at a 1:100 plant:planting area ratio in an aboveground soilless, root-restricting system. Combinations of 3 growth media, 2 rooting stimulants, and 2 fertilizers each at 2 rates were evaluated to determine the most rapid and optimal sod development for zoysiagrass. Treatments were rated weekly for percent cover, rate of stolon development, and rooting. Although treatments with rooting stimulants generally scored higher than other treatments for rooting and percent cover, these differences were not consistently significantly different from week to week. No significant differences occurred among treatments for stolon development ratings. After 16 weeks of growth, sod strength was greatest when the growth medium was a peat and vermiculite mixture.

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., 1996 ) and has been found to promote or inhibit plant growth, depending on the application rate, when incorporated into soil or potting mixtures ( Dueul, 2003 ; Linderman et al., 2006 ). Preliminary tests that we conducted indicated that 3-MPAN

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from dogwood was from plants that were also infected with Erysiphe pulchra ( Mmbaga et al., 2018 ), the impact of compounded infections on plant growth has not been evaluated. Such information would have significant implications on disease management

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A 3-year study on the effects of growth stimulants on yield, bulb size, bulb quality, and storability of short-day onions (Allium cepa L.) was conducted at three locations. Treatments included 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, humic acids, humic acids in conjunction with micronutrients, and two formulations of cytokinin applied as a transplant dip and/or plant spray. There were no differences between 2-hydroxypropanoic acid and an untreated check at two different farm locations for onion yield, equatorial bulb diameter, or percent jumbos [≥3 inches (≥7.6 cm)] in 1997. Comparisons between untreated checks, 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, humic acids as a transplant dip or plant spray, and humic acids with micronutrients, all applied as transplant dip or plant spray, indicated there were no differences among treatments for yield, pungency, soluble solids, equatorial bulb diameter, or percent marketable bulbs after 6 months in controlled atmosphere storage in 1997-98. In a final experiment, these treatments were evaluated in a factorial arrangement using the short-day onion cultivar Pegasus and a mixture of cultivars WI-609 and WI-3115, which are referred to as Wannamaker cultivar mix. `Pegasus' displayed higher yield and lower soluble solids than the Wannamaker cultivar mix. Treatment with humic acids and micronutrients, or cytokinins resulted in greater percent marketable bulbs after 4.5 months of controlled atmosphere storage compared to the untreated check. No differences were observed among the treatments for pungency or bulb size. In addition, there was no treatment by cultivar interaction.

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bridge connecting material exchange between the soil and plant shoot. A strong root system is important to ensure the proper growth and development of the shoot. Most studies have focused only on shoots rather than roots due to difficulties in research

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. The exact reasons for this growth stimulation in the latter plants were not discovered. However, it is well known that a chemical at low concentration acts as a growth stimulant to a plant and the same chemical at high concentration becomes toxic or

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data, such as growth or increases in size or weight ( Foucquier and Guedj, 2015 ). Because Bliss’s formula is not designed for computing predicted nondestructive effects, many responses to plant growth regulators and stimulants cannot be used in Bliss

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plants grown in standard, commercial soilless mix. Higher volumes of compost (75% and 100%) produced marketable plants, but of smaller sizes. GROWTH STIMULANTS ARE INEFFECTIVE ON SHORT-DAY ONIONS Several growth stimulants have been

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nutritional quality of crops. The use of biostimulants to enhance crop growth and yield has gained considerable momentum for ecological sustainability and consumer health ( Calvo et al., 2014 ; du Jardin, 2015 ). Biostimulants are substances enhancing plant

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butenolides as seed germination stimulants Tetrahedron Lett. 49 2922 2925 Taylor, J.L.S. van Staden, J. 1998 Plant-derived smoke solutions stimulate the growth of Lycopersicon esculentum roots in vitro Plant Growth Regulat. 26 77 83 Taylorson, R.B. Hendricks

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