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Jyotsna Joshi, Geng Zhang, Shanqi Shen, Kanyaratt Supaibulwatana, Chihiro K.A. Watanabe, and Wataru Yamori

systems with artificial lighting for commercialization in Japan Propag. Ornam. Plants 7 145 149 Kozai, T. 2013a Resource use efficiency of closed plant production system with artificial light: Concept, estimation and application to plant factory Proc. Jpn

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Noriko Ohtake, Masaharu Ishikura, Hiroshi Suzuki, Wataru Yamori, and Eiji Goto

plant factories with artificial lighting, the cost of electricity for lighting is still high. Because there is great potential to reduce costs by designing more efficient lighting systems, many studies have investigated the effects of light intensity and

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Yuki Sago

; Saure, 1998 ). The rate of plant growth can be increased by controlling the cultivation environment, and light intensity is an important environmental factor in such stimulation. In a plant factory, which is a closed system equipped with artificial light

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Zhengnan Yan, Dongxian He, Genhua Niu, Qing Zhou, and Yinghua Qu

Application of supplementary white and pulsed light-emitting diodes to lettuce grown in a plant factory with artificial lighting Hort. Environ. Biotechnol. 57 6 1737 1744 Stutte, G.W. Edney, S. Skerritt, T. 2009 Photoregulation of bioprotectant content of red

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Lie Li, Yu-xin Tong, Jun-ling Lu, Yang-mei Li, and Qi-chang Yang

closed plant production system with artificial light: Concept, estimation and application to plant factory Proc. Jan. Acad. Ser. B. 89 447 461 Kozai, T. Niu, G. Takagaki, M. 2015 Plant factory: An indoor vertical farming system for efficient quality food

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Kun Li, Qi-Chang Yang, Yu-Xin Tong, and Ruifeng Cheng

agriculture ( Murase, 2000 ), in which artificial lights play an important role in the precise control of the light environment. However, the widespread use of plant factories with artificial lighting is limited by their high initial investment and operation

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Kristin E. Gibson, Alexa J. Lamm, Fallys Masambuka-Kanchewa, Paul R. Fisher, and Celina Gómez

efficient quality food production. 2nd ed. Academic Press, San Diego, CA Kozai, T. Niu, G. 2020a Role of the plant factory with artificial lighting (PFAL) in urban areas, p. 8–34. In: T. Kozai, G. Niu, and M. Takagaki (eds.). Plant factory: An indoor

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Yu-Wei Liu and Chen-Kang Huang

feasible in plant factories ( Castilla and Hernandez, 2006 ; Wilson et al., 1992 ). A plant factory is an enclosed plant-growing space that is typically equipped with cultivation racks, an air-conditioning system, a hydroponic system, and light

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Liang Zheng, Huaming He, and Weitang Song

plants when used in multilayer vertical farming and with interlighting strategies. LED was introduced in plant cultivation in the 2000s ( Piovene et al., 2015 ) and is nowadays widely used in plant factories as a more efficient light source to reduce the

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Kui Lin, Zhi Huang, and Yong Xu

light spectra to best meet the requirements of plant growth and development. Hence, they have been widely used in plant factories and as supplemental lightings in greenhouses. One of the most widely investigated vegetables using artificial lights is