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Paul C. Bartley III, Glenn R. Wehtje, Anna-Marie Murphy, Wheeler G. Foshee III and Charles H. Gilliam

container industries. Tree-derived mulches such as chipped eastern red cedar, pine bark mini-nuggets ( Pinus sp.), and douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii ) have widespread availability, reasonable consistency, and are generally accepted by consumers

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Debalina Saha, S. Christopher Marble, Brian Pearson, Héctor Pérez, Gregory MacDonald and D. Calvin Odero

. 2008 Container nursery weed control with pine bark mini-nuggets J. Environ. Hort. 26 144 148 Riggle, B.D. Penner, D. 1992 Kraft lignin adsorption of metribuzin as a controlled-release function evaluation J. Agr. Food Chem. 40 1710 1712 Robertson, L

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James E. Altland, James S. Owen Jr., Brian E. Jackson and Jeb S. Fields

milled to separate large pine bark nuggets, mini nuggets, and fines. The nuggets were to be sold separately as a bulk or bagged landscape mulch material. The remaining fines were then windrowed for aging. The removal of nuggets before milling most likely

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S. Christopher Marble, Andrew K. Koeser, Gitta Hasing, Drew McClean and Annette Chandler

. Expt. Sta. Rpt. 5 25 26 Neal, J.C. Derr, J.F. 2005 Weeds of container nurseries in the United States. North Carolina Assn. Nurserymen, Raleigh, NC Richardson, B. Gilliam, C.H. Fain, G. Wehtje, G. 2008 Container nursery weed control with pine bark mini-nuggets

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Yan Chen, Ronald E. Strahan and Regina P. Bracy

. Similar results have been reported with gardenia cultivar August Beauty ( Richardson et al., 2008 ), in which growth was slightly improved when mulched with mini pine bark nuggets. These positive effects may be attributed to less fluctuation in soil

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Cody J. Stewart, S. Christopher Marble, Brian J. Pearson and P. Christopher Wilson

of organic mulch materials in containers can provide season-long weed control. In container plant production, Cochran et al. (2009) reported that a 2.5-cm layer of pine bark mini-nuggets reduced weed counts of eclipta ( Eclipta alba L.) by 87% and

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S. Christopher Marble, Andrew K. Koeser and Gitta Hasing

applications. In container plant production, Cochran et al., (2009) reported that a 2.5-cm (1 inch) layer of pine bark mini-nuggets reduced weed counts of eclipta ( Eclipta prostrata L.) by 87% and spotted spurge ( Chamaesyce maculata L.) by 90% compared

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S. Christopher Marble, Shawn T. Steed, Debalina Saha and Yuvraj Khamare

for crop growth. Many mulch products have been recommended as a means of addressing weed control challenges in ornamental plant production ( Chalker-Scott, 2007 ). Richardson et al. (2008) reported over 5 months of weed control with pine bark nuggets

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James E. Altland and Jennifer K. Boldt

Numerous mulch products have been evaluated for use in container crops. Pine bark nuggets have been shown to provide effective control of mulberry weed [ Fatoua villosa (Thunb.) Nakai] ( Penny and Neal, 2003 ), prostrate spurge ( Chamaesyce

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Debalina Saha, S. Christopher Marble, Brian J. Pearson, Héctor E. Pérez, Gregory E. MacDonald and Dennis C. Odero

. Richardson et al. (2008) reported up to 150 d of yellow woodsorrel ( Oxalis stricta ) and hairy bittercress ( Cardamine hirsuta ) control in large (3–7 gal) container-grown ornamentals with 3 inches of PB mini-nuggets. Similarly, Cochran et al. (2009