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James E. Altland, James C. Locke, and Charles R. Krause

northeastern United States, most nursery substrates are comprised primarily of pine bark (60% to 80% by volume) and sphagnum moss (10% to 30% by volume), with minor additions of other components such as compost, sand, gravel, and humus (personal observation

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James E. Altland and Charles R. Krause

Pine bark is the primary component in container nursery substrates, comprising 60% to 80% by volume of most substrate blends. Pine bark is a commodity used by other industries including fuel generation, fiber ( Lu et al., 2006 ), charcoal, landscape

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James E. Altland, James S. Owen Jr., Brian E. Jackson, and Jeb S. Fields

In the eastern United States, nurseries use either loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.) or longleaf pine ( Pinus palustris Mill.) bark as the primary organic component in soilless substrates. Pine bark was initially used as a growing substrate in the

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Magdalena Pancerz and James E. Altland

’ hakonechloa [ Hakonechloa macra (Makino) Honda] grew best in a 3 pine bark: 2 sphagnum peat: 1 sand (by volume) substrate with no DL amendment (pH 4.5). They speculated this favorable response was due to the plant’s adaptation to the low pH soil found in the

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Cody J. Stewart, S. Christopher Marble, Brian Jackson, Brian J. Pearson, P. Christopher Wilson, and Dwight K. Lauer

In the eastern United States, pine bark is the predominate substrate component in outdoor nursery container plant production. Pine bark is a byproduct of the timber industry and is stripped off logs following harvest. Once the removed pine bark is

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James E. Altland and Kay Yeon Jeong

Ground pine bark pH ranges from 4.1 to 5.1 before amendment with other components or fertilizers ( Brown and Pokorny, 1975 ; Gillman et al., 1998 ; Wright et al., 1999a , 1999b ). Limestone is traditionally used to raise the pH of pine bark

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright, Jake F. Browder, J. Roger Harris, and Alex X. Niemiera

). Of these, research and development of new substrates to replace conventionally used peatmoss and pine bark (PB) substrates have increased in recent years. In addition to developing and using new substrates, much work has focused on managing fertility

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Tyler C. Hoskins, James S. Owen Jr., Jeb S. Fields, James E. Altland, Zachary M. Easton, and Alex X. Niemiera

Pine bark is a widely used substrate component in the southeastern and mid-Atlantic regions of the U.S. nursery industry for the production of container-grown, woody ornamental crops. As a result of the high porosity and relatively low water

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright, and John R. Seiler

substrates ( Aaron, 1982 ; Hoitink and Poole, 1979 ). Recently, supplies of pine bark (PB) in many areas across the southeastern states have been erratic. Reduced availability and higher costs have been driven by the reduced supply resulting from decreased

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Jacob H. Shreckhise, James S. Owen Jr., Matthew J. Eick, Alexander X. Niemiera, James E. Altland, and Brian E. Jackson

. (2001) and Michalak et al. (2015) concluded that P runoff from agricultural operations is a primary contributor to eutrophication in the United States. Substrates used in containerized nursery crop production predominantly comprise pine bark ( Pinus