insect pests and thus allow the export of regulated produce out of quarantine areas ( USDA APHIS PPQ, 2015 ). Methyl bromide is the most common phytosanitary treatment used for these fruit in the United States. It is a low cost, rapidly dispersing gas
Jonathan Tong, Cyril Rakovski, and Anuradha Prakash
Sokrith Sea, Cyril Rakovski, and Anuradha Prakash
Foundation for Agriculture in the Classroom, 2011 ). A consequence of globalized trade is the risk of introducing or spreading insect pests; therefore, phytosanitary measures are required to disinfest fresh produce leaving a quarantine area ( Hallman, 2011
Michael J. Willett, Lisa Neven, and Charles E. Miller
]. Since the establishment of rules governing the application of international sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures in 1994 [ World Trade Organization (WTO), 2009 ], restrictions aimed at preventing the unwanted introduction of pest species have become
Maria E. Monzon, Bill Biasi, Elizabeth J. Mitcham, Shaojin Wang, Juming Tang, and Guy J. Hallman
at each temperature were based on the minimum time required for 100% mortality (phytosanitary control) plus two longer exposure times to determine the upper limit of fruit tolerance ( Table 1 ). During RF treatment, the saline solution and fruit were
Krista C. Shellie and Robert L. Mangan
Navel orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] was exposed to moist, forced air at 46 °C for up to 4.5 hours or 50 °C for 2 hours, or immersed for 3 hours in water at 46 °C. Quality attributes of heated and nonheated fruit were compared after 4 weeks of storage at 7 °C and 1 week at 23 °C. The flavor of oranges immersed in water was rated significantly inferior to fruit heated in air and fruit that were not heated. Oranges immersed in hot water also developed a higher incidence of decay during storage than oranges heated in air or nonheated control fruit. The flavor of oranges exposed to moist, forced air at 46 °C for up to 4.5 hours was rated by preference panelists as similar to nonheated controls, even though heated fruit had a significantly lower amount of titratable acidity and a higher ratio of sugar to acid. Fruit exposed to high-temperature forced air developed less decay during subsequent storage than nonheated control fruit. Texas `N33' navel oranges tolerated exposure to forced air at 46 °C for up to 4.5 hours without deleterious effects on fruit market quality.
K.C. Shellie and R.L. Mangan
Market demand exists in the United States for fresh mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit weighing >700 g, yet fruit of this size cannot be imported for lack of a quarantine treatment against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). Therefore, the objectives of this research were to evaluate the influence of fruit infestation method on mortality of late third instar, fruit fly larvae after fruit were immersed in hot water, and to generate dose mortality and fruit quality data for mangoes >700 g. Results suggested that artificial infestation is preferable to cage infestation because artificial infestation eliminates the direct influence of fruit weight loss on the heat dose delivered to the fruit center. Other advantages of artificial over cage infestation include: fruit maturity at treatment is similar to commercial application, mortality of untreated control fruit can be calculated, larval maturity is uniform and observable, and larvae can be placed into the slowest heating part of the fruit. Infesting with 50 rather than 25 larvae per fruit was preferred because the number of larvae placed into the fruit did not influence mortality and twice as many larvae were evaluated using the same number of fruit. The dose mortality and fruit quality data generated in this research suggest that immersion in water at 46.1 °C for 110 minutes may provide Probit 9 level quarantine security against Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) for mangoes weighing up to 900 g without adversely affecting fruit market quality.
K.C. Shellie and R.L. Mangan
The objective of this research was to determine whether immediate cooling of mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) in water or air affected survival of Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) larvae. Two tests were conducted with mortality of late third instar Mexican fruit fly larvae evaluated after infested mangoes were immersed in 46.1 °C water for 65, 75, or 90 minutes depending on fruit weight and immediately cooled in water or air at 22 to 26.5 °C. Results suggest a need to amend the current hot water quarantine dip treatment schedule to require cooling of fruit for 30 minutes in air. We suggest a 25-g allowance in maximum permitted fruit weight be established for the 65-, 75-, and 90-minute dips and a monitoring system used to ensure compliance. Synchronization between maximum permitted fruit weight for each hot water dip duration and commercial sizing practices would facilitate monitoring of fruit weight. We also recommend confirmation of efficacy for the 75-minute treatment of flat-elongated mangoes that weigh 375-570 g.
Cristian E. Loyola, John M. Dole, and Rebecca Dunning
demand is central to any business, and fluctuating demand can be a major issue for some businesses. The remaining production issues were of intermediate importance. The most significant species-specific production problems were phytosanitary, disease
Alejandro Martínez-Bilbao, Amaya Ortiz-Barredo, Emilio Montesinos, and Jesús Murillo
phytosanitary products. A collection of more than 250 cider and table apple cultivars originating from northern Spain has been established and maintained by the Instituto Técnico de Gestión Agrícola (ITGA; Navarre) and is being characterized ( Itoiz and Royo
Kubilay Kurtulus Bastas and Fikrettin Sahin
serious outbreak of fire blight may be potentially much more destructive in the future. Therefore, phytosanitary measures are needed to prevent any further spread of the bacterium to new blackberry- and raspberry-growing areas. The study will serve as an