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Phytopathogenic bacteria cause important economic losses in several horticultural crops ( Butsenko et al., 2020 ; Kim et al., 2016 ; Nandi et al., 2018 ). Currently, few phytosanitary products other than copper-based pesticides are available to

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Shredded cabbage was packaged in four types of non-perforated and perforated OPP films with initial 10% CO2. In the perforated OPP film with a O2 permeability of 25,000 mL/m2 per day/atm, CO2 remained at about 10%, O2 decreased to 13%, and the shreds showed the best organoleptic quality after 4 days of storage at 10 °C. The bacteria isolated from the shredded cabbage in the perforated MA package were predominantly Gram-negative rod-forms including Enterobacteriaceae and phytopathogenic bacteria, while only lactic acid bacteria (Leuconostoc citreum) was isolated as Gram-positive bacteria. For biological control of the pathogens, two lactic acid bacteria strains (Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Pediococcus acidilactici) were selected from bacteriocinogenic 6 strains, based on the growth in culture broth under 5% to 20% CO2 atmospheres. Shredded cabbage was inoculated with these two bacteriocin-producing strains, packaged in 10% CO2 perforated MA packaging, and stored at 10 °C. The growth of coliforms and psychotrophic aerobic bacteria was reduced due to antagonistic effect of lactic acid bacteria and the quality of shreds was not affected detrimentally by the strains. These results indicate that the combination of added bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria and 10% CO2 perforated MAP was useful in biopreservation of shredded cabbage.

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Citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis Starr and Garces pv. citri (Hasse) Vauterin et al., is one of the main problems affecting citrus production. In order to obtain resistance to phytopathogenic bacteria, insect genes, coding for antimicrobial proteins, have been used in plant genetic transformation. In this study, transgenic Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb. `Hamlin' plants expressing the antimicrobial insect-derived attacin A gene (attA) were obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith and Towns.) Conn-mediated transformation. Initially, the cDNA clone was used to construct a binary plasmid vector (pCattA 2300). The construction included the native signal peptide (SP) responsible for directing the insect protein to the extracellular space where bacteria is supposed to accumulate in vivo. In order to investigate the native SP effectiveness in a plant model system, onion (Allium cepa L.) epidermal cells were transformed, via biobalistics, using plasmids containing the attA gene with or without SP, fused with the green fluorescent protein gene (pattA 1303 and pSPattA 1303). Fluorescence accumulation surrounding the cells was observed only in tissues transformed with the plasmid containing the gene with SP, indicating the protein secretion to the apoplast. Citrus transformation was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization analysis in 12 regenerated plants. Transcription of attA gene was detected by Northern blot analysis in all transgenic plants. Eight selected transgenic lines were propagated and inoculated with a 106 cfu/mL suspension of the pathogen X. axonopodis pv. citri. Compared to control (non-transformed plant), seven transgenic lines showed a significant reduction in susceptibility to citrus canker. The results obtained here indicate the potential use of antibacterial proteins to protect citrus from bacterial diseases.

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vitro effects of these bacteria on Pythium reflect their effects on disease development under greenhouse conditions. Material and Methods Pythium isolates. Isolates of three phytopathogenic Pythium species frequently found in commercial greenhouse

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bacterial species, which are based on the hrp gene clusters that are highly conserved among several phytopathogenic bacteria ( Fenselau et al., 1992 ; Hwang et al., 1992 ). Leite et al. (1994) was the first to use hrp gene clusters as a diagnostic

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Bacillus and Curtobacterium belonging to soilborne organisms and Gram-negative bacteria such as the genera Pantoea and Pseudomonas belonging to phytopathogenic organisms. The isolated fungi were Aureobasidium , Fusarium , and Pestalotia in molds

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and fungal species isolated from enzyme-peeled slices stored under either air or high CO 2 atmospheres even after 6 d of storage ( Table 1 ). Isolates from the enzyme-peeled samples included phytopathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas and

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the spots incited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans ( Williams and Zitter, 1996 ). On fruit, small, slightly sunken, circular spots, 1–3 mm in diameter, with a beige center and dark brown halo develop. Secondary fungi and bacteria may colonize

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decrease negative environmental impacts resulting from inefficient use of chemical fertilizers is inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). These bacteria exert beneficial effects on plant growth and development and therefore may be used

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bacteria from fresh fruit and vegetables as biocontrol agents of phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi Intl. Microbiol. 11 231 236 Usall, J. Torres, R. Teixidó, N. 2016 Biological control of postharvest diseases on fruit: A suitable alternative? Curr. Opin

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