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Stip is regarded as a physiological disorder of pepper ( Capsicum annuum ) in which symptoms appear as brown, black, and yellow ovoid-shaped chlorotic and/or necrotic pod lesions ≈0.5 to 1.2 cm long and 0.5 cm wide ( Fulton and Uchanski, 2017

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, such as poplar and peach. To date, apple dormancy has been studied from various perspectives, such as physiological and molecular changes ( Porto et al., 2015 ; Wang et al., 1991 ; Wisniewski et al., 2015 ) as well as genetic analyses ( Celton et al

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., 1999 ). Because of this, knowledge about the behavior of NaCl-tolerant and sensitive plants in these conditions is gaining importance ( Grieve, 2000 ). Salinity effects on plants include ion toxicity, osmotic stress, mineral deficiencies, physiological

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Abstract

Leaf and fruit tissues of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) were sequentially fractionated using hot water, sodium nitrate, acetic acid, and hydrochloric acid to extract Ca, Mg, and K in various forms. Water-soluble and sodium nitrate-exchangeable Ca were considered physiologically active forms and increased from 50 to 84% of the total Ca in fruit during the season and decreased from 57 to 45% in leaves. About 90% of the Mg and K concentrations in fruit were physiologically active. Physiologically active forms of Ca, Mg, and K followed changes in total concentrations very closely, so that analyses of physiologically active fractions provide no increased accuracy for predicting physiological disorders.

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national symbol of its botanical heritage. Given the intensification of soil salinization resulting from climate and environmental changes, and the extensive use of snow-melting agents in urban streets, studying the physiological mechanism of salt tolerance

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; Zhou et al., 2017 ). The evidence of global warming from general circulation models ( Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2014 ) has revived the interest in studying yield declines in crops, including tomato at physiologically critical

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necessarily confer higher sugar content in ‘Bartlett’ as high temperature can have a detrimental effect on assimilate translocation ( Raffo et al., 2011 ). As physiological change often results from altered metabolism, metabolic profiling is a powerful

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nutritional disorders such as induced deficiency of other nutrients and/or ion toxicity ( Salifu and Jacobs, 2006 ; Salifu and Timmer, 2003 ). Despite the demonstrated potential of subirrigation, detailed analyses of fertilization responses specific to these

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( Biddington, 1986 ; Druege, 2006 ; Tholen et al., 2006 ). Abscisic acid is another phytohormone that induces physiological and morphological adaptive changes ( Srivastava, 2002 ). Water uptake capacity in newly transplanted seedlings may be limited because

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root death ( Dumroese et al., 2013 ; Lindström and Rune, 1999 ; Liu et al., 2016 ; Ortega et al., 2006 ; Takoutsing et al., 2014 ), directly impeding a series of physiological processes ( Dumroese et al., 2013 ). Eliminating root malformation in

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